Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Metadiscourse Awareness on Developing Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Its Relationship to the Learners' Memory

Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Metadiscourse Awareness on Developing Iranian EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension and Its Relationship to the Learners' Memory

Article excerpt

Abstract

The term metadiscourse refers to the material which helps to organize the text, signal the writer's attitude, intended message and assumptions thus shaping the overall organization of the text and providing a better understanding for the interlocutors. It is a rhetorical device writer's use for conveying their ideas, determining the social distance of reader-writer relationship. Writers can create an involved style of writer persona or a more remote stance by using the appropriate metadiscourse devices.

So, this useful concept, namely metadiscourse is used to better understanding of the texts and the purpose of this study is to show the effect of explicit instruction of metadiscourse markers on developing Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension by using metadiscoursal taxonomies proposed by Hyland (2005). The metadiscourse elements in this research will be examined in two categories as interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers. Based on proficiency test 60 institute participants were selected and randomly, based on even and odd, divided in two equal homogeneous groups first, as an experimental group and second as a control group in Pishgaman institute in Kermanshah province that results showed the positive effect of metadiscourse awareness on developing Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension in two stages of pre and posttest. Also, by conducting the delayed post-test after two weeks only for experimental group, this research indicated that this effect was on short-term, rather than on long-term memory.

Keywords: Metadiscourse, Interactive resources, Interactional resources, Reading comprehension

1. Introduction

Nowadays reading has received considerable attention, because of the difficulty that many students have in making the shift from reading narrative to expository prose. Crismore (1983).

Reading as receptive skills and as a level of understanding of text come from the interaction between words that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside of the text. But difficulties of these skills cause a barrier for students to get main idea of text. This is because of lack of much knowledge, that one of them is metadiscourse awareness and different types of it. Metadiscourse is an anthropological term used by Joseph .m William (1981), that is writing that guide the reader (distinguish from) writing that inform the reader about the Primary topics, discourse about discourse. Crismore p. (47)

In Williams' view, metadiscourse is writing about writing whatever does not refer to the subject matter being addressed. This includes all connecting devices such as, therefor, however, for example, in the first place, all comments about author's attitude, I believe, in my opinion, and so on. Metadiscourse is self-reflective linguistic material referring to the evolving text and to the writer and imagined reader of that text. It is based on a view of writing as social engagement and in academic contexts reveals the ways that writers project themselves into their discourse to signal their attitude towards both the propositional content and the audience of the text. But attended to Hyland's (2005) definition and Hyland's types of metadiscourse is interesting to use in this article.

2. Types of Metadiscourse

This section describes three different classifications of metadiscourse, at the first Williams, (1982) has classified metadiscourse into three general types:

a. Advanced organizers

b. Connectives

c. Inter personal discourse

Crismore's two types, then Hyland's definition and classification of metadiscourse that is base for this article.

Then Crismores' classifies metadiscourse into two broad common types with subtypes for each one:

1. Informational 2. Attitudinal

Subtypes of informative metadiscourse:

1. Goals 2. Pre-plans 3. Post-plans4. Topicalizers

Subtypes of attitudinal metadiscourse:

1. Saliency 2. …

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