Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Avicenna and Oral Lithotripters

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Avicenna and Oral Lithotripters

Article excerpt

Dear Editor-in-Chief

Renal Stone is one of the fairly common dis- eases in all over the world. According to statis- tics, its prevalence in America is between 10 to 15% (1). Iran and its neighbors such as Turkey and Pakistan locate on stone-making region. The exact prevalence and incidence rates of urinary calculi in Iran are not clear (2).

Since a) mortality rate in this disease is not high, b) there is no longer time to invention and applying modern methods such as ESWL, PCNL, and TUL in order to cure Renal Stone, c) there is no evidence implying that its preva- lence has been low in the past, there have been possibly effective treatments to renal stone, on the other hand, despite of discovering modern and effective methods to cure renal stone, none of them are without side-effects, ancient principles of medicine are too different in com- parison with modern medicine and description of diseases (3). Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) can be used in conjunction with and as an aid to the conventional medicine (4).

However, human being has recognized this disease since many years ago in accordance with historical evidences. Also, "Ferdows Alhekmat" is one of the oldest text books which are available for us today. This book was written by Ai Ibn Rabban Tabari, one of Is- lamic Lands' physicians in the 9th century. This book has referred to symptoms and treatment of renal stone (5).

One of medical books' masterpieces is Al-Gha- noon which was written by Ibn Sina in the early 11th century (6). He allocated an isolated chapter to renal stone in which its etiology, symptoms, and treatment were discussed. Also, he referred to a group of oral drugs that break up renal stone in treatment part of this book. So, he called them "Mofattet" which is equal to "Lithotripter" in English language.

According to Ibn Sina in the Ghanoon second book, when these drugs encounter to a solid substance, they will turn it into tiny compo- nents (7). He believed that Mofattet drugs have various types based on their effect on compact and non-compact stones and the location of stone formation. They are as follows;

Some of them can just break up tiny and not very compact stones.

Some of them can effect on Renal Stone, but not on Bladder Stone.

Some of them can effect on Renal Stone and some of Bladder Stone too, but not all of them.

Some of Mofattet drugs can specially effect on both Renal and Bladder Stone (8). …

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