Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Time-Based Work Interference with Family and Emotional Exhaustion among Female Teachers

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Time-Based Work Interference with Family and Emotional Exhaustion among Female Teachers

Article excerpt

This study investigated the relationship between time-based work interference with family and emotional exhaustion among female teachers. 304 female secondary school teachers between the ages of 26 to 54 years (M= 40.37 and SD =4.09) with educational qualifications ranging from National Certification of Education to Masters of Education Degree were drawn from 24 Government Secondary Schools within Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State in the South-eastern part of Nigeria using criterion sampling technique. Okonkwo (2011) 8-item time-based work interference with family scale and 9-item emotional exhaustion scale drawn from Maslach and Jackson (1986) 22-item burnout inventory were administered. Correlational design was used. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used as statistical test for data analysis. Time-based work interference with family was not related to emotional exhaustion, r (302) = 0.04, p >.05. The result was discussed in the light of Conservation of Resources Theory.

Keywords: Time-based, Work interference with family, Emotional exhaustion, Female teachers.

Today, Nigerian women are found in different professions with the greater percentage in human service professions (e.g. teaching) characterized by high level of interpersonal involvement and exposure to emotional demanding situations. However, despite the participation and strides made by Nigerian women in the workplace, the division of labour at home still falls along pretty traditional lines which leave them with primaiy responsibilities of overseeing household works. Thus, Nigerian working mothers like other women in other parts of the world irrespective of their preserve which is taking care of family responsibilities engage in paid work. Despite their involvement in paid work, women have been found to bear primary responsibilities of home care and childcare (Lero, 1992). Moreover, despite the commitment and contributions made by Nigerian women in the family, they still participate and make strides in the workplace.

Balancing these work and family responsibilities expose this segment of women to cross role demands of work and family responsibilities. The cross role demands many a time result in work interference with family. This interference occurs when the employees especially women extend their efforts to satisfy their work demands at the expense of their family demands (Cole, 2004).

Work interference with family occurs when participation in work responsibilities makes it difficult for an employee to cariy out family responsibilities (e.g. cooking, washing, child care e.t.c). Work interference with family is primarily determined by excessive work demands and predicts negative family outcomes (Adebola, 2005). It has been observed that job-related variables have strong bearing on work interference with family. For instance, career salience, that is, the psychological identification with work role may lead to a higher level of work-family conflict (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). This shows that when a woman's career identity grows, she will become more ego involved in that work role and exhibits higher levels of motivation. This, in turn may increase time commitment to that work role and produces strain that may interfere with her family responsibilities.

In view of the traditional sex-role ideology in Nigeria, women are socialized to have a stronger orientation to and greater involvement in the family than men. Therefore, for working mothers, time-based work interference with family might occur more frequently as a result of dual commitments to employment and to the family. Time-based work interference with family is a situation in which time spent on work activities makes it difficult for a married working mother to participate in family activities and affects her performance in that role (Carlson, Kacmar & Williams, 2000). In the case of work interference with family, the two roles are incompatible in the sense that the time spent on work role makes it difficult for married working mothers to comply with the demands of the family. …

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