Academic journal article Journal of Leisure Research

The Influence of Extraversion on Leisure Constraints Negotiation Process: A Case of Korean People with Disabilities

Academic journal article Journal of Leisure Research

The Influence of Extraversion on Leisure Constraints Negotiation Process: A Case of Korean People with Disabilities

Article excerpt

The number of individuals with disabilities is continuously increasing as a result of longer life spans as well as improvements in medical technology (Yau, McKercher, & Packer, 2004). According to Burnett and Baker (2001), individuals with disabilities in the United States will double, reaching 100 million by 2030. This trend is similar in other countries including Korea. A recent census report indicated that the number of Koreans with disabilities would reach 2.2 million by 2009, comprising an estimated 4.6 % of the total population (Korea Employment Agency for the Disabled, 2010).

With a rise in these numbers, there has been an increased research interest to assess leisure constraints people with disabilities commonly perceive (e.g., Burns & Graefe, 2007; Daniels, Rodgers, & Wiggins, 2005; McKercher, Packer, Yau, & Lam, 2003). Despite this plethora of the topic, leisure professionals have largely focused on identification of the constraints for those individuals with disabilities (Smith, 1987). Consequently, little attention has been paid to an understanding of their dynamic decision-making procedure for participation in preferred activities, which is known as the constraints negotiation process. In other words, there is limited information on how people with disabilities negotiate the impacts of constraints and how they ultimately determine participation in their desired activities.

The goal of this study employing the population of individuals with physical disabilities is to examine how diverse elements of the leisure constraints negotiation mechanism (i.e., constraints, motivations, negotiation, and participation) are interconnected to each other. Unlike previous studies, we also intend to test how extraversion as a key sub-dimension of personality traits affects the constraints negotiation process. According to Hogan (1987), personality traits are known to be more stable over time and more influential on individuals' leisure behaviors than any other psychological factors. Among the five factors of personality traits (i.e., extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), several studies (e.g., Barnett, 2006; Brandstatter, 1994; Diener, Larsen, & Emmons, 1984; Furnham & Heaven, 1999) that examined the relationships between those traits and leisure behavior suggested extraversion is more closely related to leisure participation than the other personality traits. While a positive relationship was reported between extraversion and leisure participation, nevertheless, it has not been fully addressed how this personality trait is interconnected with other explanatory elements in the constraints negotiation mechanism.

To reach this goal, we employed the constraint-effects-mitigation model originally proposed by Hubbard and Mannell (2001) as a theoretical framework of the constraints negotiation process. According to this model, the operation of negotiation efforts, triggered by an increase in the levels of constraints and motivations, mitigates the negative relationship between constraints and participation but intensifies the positive association between motivations and participation. Through a comparison of four competing models (i.e., independence model, negotiation-buffer model, constraint-effects-mitigation model, and perceived-constraint-reduction model), they found that the constraint-effectsmitigation model is most appropriate to address individuals' leisure participation. Thus, we utilize this constraint-effects-mitigation model in this paper. Further, to investigate the effects of the extraversion trait on participation and negotiation efforts, we modify the model with the trait of personality using individuals with several types of physical disabilities as the study population.

Literature Review

Leisure Constraints

Leisure constraints are typically referred to as "factors that are ... perceived or experienced by individuals to limit the formation of leisure preferences and to inhibit or prohibit participation and enjoyment in leisure" (Jackson, 1997, p. …

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