Academic journal article IUP Journal of International Relations

Politico-Economic Aspects of Sino-Indian Relations: Emerging Trends and Issues

Academic journal article IUP Journal of International Relations

Politico-Economic Aspects of Sino-Indian Relations: Emerging Trends and Issues

Article excerpt

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the recent scenarios in Sino-Indian relations. It examines the background of relations between India and China, highlighting the tensions in the ties between the two countries since the 1962 war, which shocked Jawaharlal Nehru, the architect of India's foreign policy. The Nehruvian policy of India's self-image was punctured by India's defeat in the 1962 Sino-Indian war. Incursions into India by China are continuing. The Sino-Indian relations will define the 21st century in a more complicated manner than the Soviet-American conflict that characterized the second half of the 20th century. The paper also gives an assessment of India's foreign policy, and presents some conclusions about the future of Sino-Indian relations. There are emerging trends and issues in Sino-Indian relations. China and India are the largest and the most populated countries and are described as the Asian giants and have their own peculiarity, commonality of economic interests, and divergence on geopolitical perceptions.

Introduction

The Communist Party of China was founded on July 1, 1 921 in Shanghai. In 1 927, Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek launched attacks on Communist strongholds in Shanghai. During 1934-35, Mao Zedong began his ascent to power during the Long March, a series of retreats by the Red Army to evade Chiang's pursuing Nationalist forces. On October 1, 1 949, Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-Shek and the defeated nationalists fled to Taiwan.

The Communist Party has transformed China. The party marked its 90th anniversary on July 1, 2011. India was the second country to accord recognition to the People's Republic of China and supported the Chinese representation in the United Nations.

India rejected the two China policy pursued by the US. At the Bandung Conference in 1955, India and China signed the Panchsheel Agreement (five principles of peaceful co-existence) and also recognized the Chinese sovereignty over Tibet and accepted the Chinese claim over Tibet as a province of China. After the Lhasa revolt, Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of the Lamas, took asylum in India and formed a government-in-exile in Dharamshala in Himachal Pradesh. The asylum to Dalai Lama became a major irritant in Sino-lndian relations. China also made claim over many parts of the Indian territory and sent troops to the Indian border. The Chinese People's Army occupied Aksai-Chin and the Chinese map also showed Arunachal Pradesh as a part of China.

Jawaharlal Nehru, the architect of India's foreign policy, was shocked by the Chinese aggressive behavior and a border war broke out in 1962 between India and China, and the Nehruvian policy of India's self-image was punctured. The Chinese aggression gave a grave shock to Nehru from which he could not recover, and in May 1964, he died.

Military incursions into India by the Chinese forces are continuing, which are tracked by Beijing's diplomatic assault on India's territorial integrity and pluralistic nationalism. The Chinese embassy in New Delhi is issuing irregular visas to Kashmiris of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (ΡΟΚ) in an effort to legitimize separatism. Beijing officially condemned Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Arunachal Pradesh.

Officially, however, India maintains that it is on good terms with Beijing. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh also met his Chinese counterpart, Wen Jiabao, at the ASEAN Summit in Thailand.

There are two reasons for China's aggressive behavior towards India. The first is historical. At the Bandung Conference in 1955, there were differences between the Chinese Prime Minister Chou-in-Lie and Nehru, who was an idealist in implementing and realizing foreign policy goals. The second reason is that there is a virtual competition between India and China. Both are aspiring to be the economic giants in Asia. It is rightly observed that the Sino-lndian relations "will define the 21st century in a more complicated manner than the Soviet-American conflict that characterized the second half of the 20th century. …

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