Academic journal article European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

The Interdisciplinarity in the Romanian Medical Research

Academic journal article European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies

The Interdisciplinarity in the Romanian Medical Research

Article excerpt

The term "interdisciplinarity" appeared fairly late in the current language, for which reason it was not included in the Romanian dictionary of modern language dating 1958. The term was to be found only in 1978 in the Dictionary of Neologism (F. Marcu and C. Maneca) defined as "the establishment of relations between several sciences or disciplines". In the dictionary "Le Petit Larousse en couleurs" (1995) we also find the synonymous terms "pluridisciplinary" and "multidisciplinary", defining the simultaneity of several disciplines.

The interdisciplinarity, although based on the unity of the science fields, initially emerged as an ambiguous concept. H. Hechhansen considers the interdisciplinarity as being heterogeneous, a complementary component, and even unifying pseudointerdisciplinarity. From M. Boisot's point of view, the interdisciplinarity may be linear, structured and restrictive. In 1983, G. Gozzer (quoted by A. Jula) points out that, at a certain period, the concept has been framed between a universal pedagogical panacea and a formula which was likely to encourage superficiality and spiritual disorder, the latter leading to the extinction or mixing of the disciplines, and thus, disputing the professor, by tradition possessing a monodisciplinary training. The disciplinary approach of a subject leads, in most situations, to the emasculation of the scientific creativity, reduced to a mere, chant technical research, strictly specialized in a limited field. Thus it tends to create barriers between the groups of specialists and dissociating them from the scientific communities. Generally speaking, there are several levels of disciplines interpénétration: pluridisciplinarity, multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity.

Interdisciplinarity implies phenomena, laws and general concepts common to several disciplines examined in contexts as varied as possible, to emphasize the multiple facets and the means of implementation thereof in the area of various disciplines. Through interdisciplinarity, the horizontal transfer of knowledge from one discipline to another is being promoted. In "Exposé de quelque concepts fondamentaux ", UNESCO, 1985, G. Vaideanu shows that interdisciplinarity involves a certain degree of integration between different areas of knowledge and different approaches, and also the use of a common language, allowing "exchanges of a conceptual and methodological order". Gusdrof (quoted by A. Jula) argues that interdisciplinarity has always been an important factor in the development of knowledge in two ways: the accomplishment of an exhaustive map of knowledge and the need for cooperation with other disciplines. Consequently interdisciplinarity appears as a specialization process that generates new sub disciplines and opportunities.

According to Basarab Nicolescu, interdisciplinarity represents a transfer of methods from one discipline to another, describing three degrees of transfer: an applicative one (for example, the nuclear physics methods are being transferred to medicine, thus yielding new therapeutic solutions), an epistemological one (for instance, the transfer of direct analysis, of formalized logical analysis, historical and critical analysis and of experimental genetic analysis to medicine) and the transfer generating new disciplines (for example, the transfer of management methods to medicine led to the emergence of health management).

The projects initiated by UNESCO (at the beginning of the 7th decade) in various countries, known as "integrated sciences" emphasized the principle of interdisciplinarity, imposed by research. Teams made of researchers from several science areas achieved remarkable results. The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) in the U.S.A played an important role in promoting the interdisciplinarity, in 1964, drafting a list of basic concepts common to several sciences, in order to improve the curricula.

Centre International de Recherche et d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires (CIRET), in collaboration with UNESCO, developed "The Transdisciplinary Evolution of the University", a project debated at the International Congress "Which University for Tomorrow? …

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