Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Entrepreneurial Competencies Required by Secondary School Graduates for Processing Cashew Nuts to Kernel for Poverty Reduction in Enugu State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Entrepreneurial Competencies Required by Secondary School Graduates for Processing Cashew Nuts to Kernel for Poverty Reduction in Enugu State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Abstract

This paper identified entrepreneurial competencies required by Secondary School graduates for processing cashew nuts to kernel for poverty reduction in Enugu State. This study is significant to the secondary school graduates, their parents, skill acquisition centres, Enugu State Government and future researchers. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a survey research deign. It was carried out in Enugu State. The population for the study was 134 made up of 102 female teachers of agriculture and 32 traditional women cashew nut processors. The entire population was involved for the study. Questionnaire was use for data collection. The internal consistency of the instrument was 0.81. The data was analyzed using the mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings include, among others, the total of 27competencies. Recommendations were made.

Keywords: entrepreneurial competencies, secondary school graduates, processing, poverty reduction.

INTRODUCTION

Cashew, Anacardium accidentale, is a tree crop favoured in Enugu State for its juice petiole and nut. Bridaine (1989) said that cashew originated from Latin America. It is 10-15 meter high, the branches are dense and spreading, and may almost reach the ground. The author noted that the fruit of cashew consist of two parts -the cashew apple which is really the swollen peduncle of the fruit and the cashew nut containing a kernel rich in oil. Ugwu (1996) recorded that cashew apples are preferred yellow or red in color at maturity by consumers. The apple is very high in vitamin C and riboflavin. The author continued that the overall compositions of the cashew nut (kernel) in percentages include the following: protein (21%), fat (47%), carbohydrate (22%), reducing sugar (1-3%), starch 4.6 - 17.2% and oil 35.8%. Renaweera (2000) observed that the kernel of the cashew nut is eaten as a delicacy, or added to sauces. The kernel also yields oil that is sometime made into a kind of butter. The leaves and shoots are occasionally used for flavouring stews. Panafrica News Agency (2001) said that cashew has various domestic and industrial uses. Products of the tree have various medicinal values - Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) for wounds, leaves for burns etc. Errington and Coulter (1989) revealed that the skin obtained from processed cashew kernel can be burned or mixed with grains for livestock feed.

Processing, in the opinion of Hornby (2006) is the act of putting a raw material through a manufacturing process in order to change it. In reference to this study, processing is the act of putting raw-cashew nuts through a manufacturing process in order to obtain cashew kernels. Jafee and Morton (1997) noted that India was the first country to build a cashew processing industry. The authors added that the country's hundreds of small and medium - scale processing outlets has long been insufficient to meet the demand in the market. Nayar (1995) clarified that processing of cashew-nut has the potential to increase earnings, create jobs and increase exports. Secondary school graduates in Enugu State can be engaged in cashew nut processing jobs to reduce poverty among them.

Secondary school graduates, in the view of Okafor and Onuoha (2010) are those individuals that have completed six years of secondary school education but could nut secure admission into any higher institution or employed in any job. Olaitan, Asogwa and Onipede (2009) stressed that unemployed secondary school graduates have no means of survival except by depending on their parents. This implies that they need to be employed for jobs in order to reduce poverty.

Poverty, in the view of Olaitan, Ali, Nwachukwu and Onyemachi (2002) is a state of not having money or means of meeting basic needs by an individual, thereby deserving sympathy or pity. The World Bank report of (2003) stated that poverty is an unacceptable human deprivation in terms of economic opportunity, education, health and nutrition as well as lack of empowerment and security. …

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