Academic journal article Journal of Education and Learning

Leadership Challenges in the Implementation of Ict in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya

Academic journal article Journal of Education and Learning

Leadership Challenges in the Implementation of Ict in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya

Article excerpt


Many authors argue that school leadership determines how Information Communication Technology (ICT) is implemented and its subsequent impact on teaching and learning. This involves Principal as a school leader to lead in implementation. A positive attitude of school leader towards implementation of ICT will encourage the school community to be actively involved in its implementation.

Kenya is in the process of implementing ICT in schools. However, there are many challenges that hinder effective ICT implementation including school leadership challenge. This paper reports that school leader's interest, their commitment and championing implementation of ICT programs in schools positively influences the whole process. The Paper recommends that all school leaders consider using ICT in their day-to-day activities of running their schools. ICT curriculum and managerial skills should be incorporated to training of school leaders in Kenya. Implementation of ICT is becoming more important to schools and the success of such implementation is often due to presence of effective school leadership.

To a large extent, school leaders have been relying on government and development partners to equip schools with ICT infrastructure. This Paper recommends besides sensitizing development partners and waiting for their contributions, school leadership should consider ICT a priority in school and allocate budgets that would promote its implementation. A descriptive survey was used to collect data by administering questionnaires to selected sample of ICT/curriculum teachers, Principals and Board of Governors (BOG) chairpersons from 105 public secondary schools in Meru County, Kenya.

Keywords: school leadership, implementation, ICT, schools, Kenya

1. Introduction

Research shows that investments in ICT for enhancing formal and non-formal education systems are essential for schools improvement (Tong &Trinidad, 2010). School leaders are chief accounting officers in their schools and therefore are concerned in allocating budgets to various school activities including implementation of ICT. According to Betz (2011), implementation of ICT in schools would be successful when school leader supports, learns, provide up to-date infrastructure, adequate professional development and support staff during its implementation. School leaders have responsibility of supervising implementation of ICT programs in their schools. A study carried out by Anderson & Dexter (2010) on technology leadership behaviors of school principals established that apart from ICT infrastructure being important in school, school leadership was the most determining factor in the process of effectively implementing ICT in schools.

More research support the idea that school leadership behavior determines success or failure of schools to implement ICT in its activities (Schiller, 2011, Hennessey, 2010, Aguyo, 2010, Chang, Chin & Hsu, 2012). From these studies it can be concluded that school leader's behaviors is very important in implementation of ICT in schools. Researchers and authors view leadership behavior of educational managers has having a positive role in determining the process of ICT implementation in education. A positive behavior towards ICT would set clear visions and good conditions for its implementation. In schools, positive behavior towards ICT would manifest itself by the way the school leaders use ICT and encouraging others to use it. For efficient implementation of ICT in schools, school leaders must address challenges of implementing new technologies, starting with their own challenges.

However, due to many challenges in implementing ICT in schools in sub-Sahara Africa, school leaders find themselves in a situation that requires them to understand and undertake some of these challenges. Failure to meet these challenges would mean many schools would not be able to effectively implement ICT in their teaching and learning activities. …

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