Academic journal article Journal for Educational Research Online

Five Research-Based Heuristics for Using Video in Pre-Service Teacher Education

Academic journal article Journal for Educational Research Online

Five Research-Based Heuristics for Using Video in Pre-Service Teacher Education

Article excerpt


This article provides a research synthesis on the use of video in pre-service teacher education. Common ideas and evidences concerning the use of video in pre-service teacher education are reviewed. Based on the state-of-the-art in using video, five research-based heuristics are derived. Research findings of a number of studies are further used to illustrate the specification of heuristics. Specifically, a set of rules of thumb about when, how, and why to use video is presented to clarify the strengths and limitations of video as a medium to support pre-service teacher learning.


Teacher education; Video; Pre-service; Professional development

Fünf evidenzbasierte Heuristiken fíir den Einsatz von Video in der universitären Lehrerausbildung


Der Beitrag liefert eine Forschungssynthese zur Nutzung von Video in der universitären Lehrerausbildung. Die Forschung wird dahingehend zusammengefasst, welche Ideen derzeit verfolgt werden und welche Evidenzen zur Nutzung von Video vorliegen. Basierend auf dem Forschungsstand leiten die Autoren fünf forschungsbasierte Heuristiken zum Einsatz von Video ab. Die Forschungsergebnisse einer Reihe ausgewählter Studien werden genutzt, um die Heuristiken weiter zu spezifizieren. Es werden Erfahrungsregeln vorgestellt, wann, wie und warum Video in der universitären Lehrerbildung eingesetzt werden kann. Die Erfahrungsregeln sollen helfen, Stärken und Schwächen von Video als ein Medium zur Unterstützung des Lernens von Lehramtsstudierenden zu klären.


Lehrerforschung; Video; Universitäre Lehrerausbildung; Professionelle Weiterbildung

l. Introduction

Many pre-service teachers struggle when they begin a teaching position - suffering from "practice shock" (Stokking, Leenders, de Jong, & van Tartwijk, 2003). Specifically novice teachers find it difficult to apply what they have learned in their teacher education program (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005). They tend to revert to intuitive theories of teaching and learning that correspond with their own experiences in school rather than with the research-based knowledge from their teacher education program (Lampert & Ball, 1998). In other words, their theoretical knowledge often remains inert (Whitehead, 1929); such knowledge can be retrieved when required, but it does not guide their classroom practice (Cochran-Smith, 2003). To address this limitation, teacher educators, administrators, and policymakers stress that teacher education needs to more effectively help future teachers to develop knowledge and skills in a way that can be applied in a classroom (DarlingHammond & Bransford, 2005; Korthagen & Kessels, 1999). Specifically, many suggest that pre-service teacher education needs to strengthen the theory-practice connection (Feiman-Nemser, 2001; Grossman, 2005; Korthagen & Kessels, 1999).

To do so, Ball and Forzani (2009, 2010) argued for making practice the core of teachers' professional preparation. But how should practice - which introduces professional teaching to novices - be used in initial pre-service teacher education? Grounding pre-service teacher learning in practice requires developing approaches that help pre-service teachers to learn in a contextualized way (Ball, 2000). Practice should be made visible to and learnable by novices (Feiman-Nemser, 2001). Integrating practice into teacher education programs might initially involve seeing examples of tasks, analyzing those tasks, seeing demonstrations, and, later on, seeing actual practice in classrooms (Ball & Forzani, 2009). Furthermore, grounding learning in practice should allow pre-service teachers to focus their attention on particular aspects of the work of teaching without reducing teaching practice to an atomized collection of unconnected, fragmented acts (Grossman et al., 2009).

One approach for grounding learning in practice has been the use of video in pre-service teacher education (Santagata, Gallimore, & Stigler, 2005). …

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