Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Towards Achievement of Sustainable Development through Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): A Case of Middle Level Colleges-Kenya

Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Towards Achievement of Sustainable Development through Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): A Case of Middle Level Colleges-Kenya

Article excerpt

Abstract

Achieving sustainable development has been very elusive especially in the developing countries. This is as a result of poor infrastructure, poor governance, unutilized resources, unaccountability, lack of transparency and lack of skilled human capital which in return hinder national development. Middle developed countries like the Asian tigers, such as Singapore, Malaysia, and other East Asian countries have managed to attain economic sustainability and development through utilizing policies which emphasized Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in their learning institutions and also through Knowledge Management (KM) which is a relatively new concept in both information and industrial world which has led to knowledge getting value from the data and information and thus in the path to the realization of Millennium Development Goals{MDG's}. Knowledge management (KM) has further led to a shift towards organizational development, intellectual capital management, and competence management. The current Education system in Kenya is exam oriented and does not provide any functional skills because it encourages rote learning, drilling of the learners and this will eventually lead to mechanical learning, and eventually lead learning not to be learner centered and creativity is not encouraged. The learning institutions eventually churn out learners who lack functional skills and lifelong employability hampered and some will even resort to uncouth ways of acquiring wealth. This paper therefore, proposes that the curricular be modified so as to meet the requirements of Vision 2030 which posits be a creation , adaptation and usage of knowledge which will become part of formal instruction. It also intends to establish how knowledge management can be utilized so as to achieve sustainable development through TVET in Kenya and in the long run curb challenges emanating from inappropriate training methods which lead to non functional education and lack of equity in some knowledge supply chains resulting in lack of lifelong employability.

Keywords: TVET, lifelong learning, lifelong employability, knowledge management

INTRODUCTION

In pre-colonial Kenya, learning of the youth was through traditional apprenticeship. Here the apprentice watched the masters and slowly developed abilities to execute practical aspects needed tasks. Later, with the coming of the missionaries, some formal learning was introduced and the Africans were taught basic literacy subjects like masonry, carpentry and agriculture so as to provide cheap labour and not make them self reliant. The European schools on the other hand, were to prepare graduants for white collar jobs while the Asians education was meant to prepare learners for accounting and book keeping. After independence, the new government wanted to put in place a strong economic base but technical knowhow was not enough since the expatriates were leaving the country. A commission was set up to look into the changes in the education system. The commission (the Ominde Report, 1964) majorly looked at national identity and unity while the Mackay commission recommended establishment of a second University in Kenya that would be technology based and this could bring to fruition vocational and training

The Mackay commission also recommended the change of education structure from 7-4-2-3 system which had adopted seven years of primary, four years of lower secondary, two years in upper secondary and three years in University and all schools had a common curriculum to the 8-4-4 system (8 years in primary, 4 years of secondary and 4 years of University education) it was vocationalised and those who exited the system at each level would have acquired skills needed to find gainful employment or self-employment and therefore be self reliant and allrounded person who could fit any working condition. This approach did not work and most vocational subjects introduced, have quietly been let to fallow because of implementation cost and sustainability. …

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