Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Effect of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (Rebt) on Federal Teachers' Attitudes towards Retirement

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Effect of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (Rebt) on Federal Teachers' Attitudes towards Retirement

Article excerpt

Abstract

The research work was an experimental study, which investigated the effects of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) on Federal teachers' attitude towards retirement in Lagos State, Nigeria. Two hundred teachers from two Federal Government owned secondaiy schools in Lagos State were pre-tested using the "Attitude Towards Retirement Inventory" (ATRI) developed by the researcher. One hundred and twenty-five respondents scored negatively (i.e below 100 points) on the ATRI. Out of this number, only ninety-five returned the "Workers Consent Form" (WCF). Fifty out of the 95 consenters were randomly selected to participate in the experiment The 50 participants were then randomly assigned to two groups of 25 each; REBT (Group A) and the Control Group (Group B). At the end of the treatment which lasted for five weeks, the participants were post-tested using ATRI. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) as the post-hoc test. The results revealed that REBT was effective in changing the attitude towards retirement of federal teachers in Lagos State from negative to positive. The results also showed that gender and length of service have no influence on the treatment package of REBT on the participants.

Key Words: REBT, Federal Teachers, Attitude and Retirement

Introduction

Most people look forward to retirement with a mix of excitement and anxiety (Adewuyi, 2008). They feel excited about having a time to relax and to realize those dreams that they have not accomplished. And they feel anxious about whether they will be financially and emotionally ready to deal with the changes that retirement would bring (Adewuyi, 2008).

In the early days of the Nigerian economic history, manpower needs for the public and the private sectors of the economy were in short supply (Egbuta, 1991). The few workers who held the office in the public service and in the industry were often encouraged to extend their job tenure beyond the normal retiring age of 65 years (Adegoke, 2002). When eventually these workers were allowed to retire, they had become so old that, it was more appropriate to bid them "Rest in Peace" than to wish them a "Happy retirement". Some of those pioneer retires died in ripe old age just a few months after retirement (Adegoke, 2002).

The practice of late retirement in those days appears to have created the impression among subsequent generations of Nigerian workers that retirement is for the aged and dying. It is no wonder, therefore, that up till now, workers have continued to resist the retirement age before the great purge of 1976, stories were rife of workers who declared and re-declared their ages downwards in order to avoid retirement at the legal retirement period. The result of the pervading phobia which Nigerian workers have developed for retirement over the year is that the overwhelming majority of them do not have the slightest idea of how to prepare for life beyond the working age (Tokunbo, 1990).

Retirement is as inevitable as death is to all organisms. Retirement is necessary and obvious because the era of the privileged worker and of surplus jobs is gone (Egbuta, 1991). The pressure of the crowding presence of the unemployed is already forcing employers of labour to side-step some provisions of service condition and retire older employees even prematurely (Adegoke, 2002). Eveiy worker has a stipulated time to retire from a formal employment, either by reason of age or length of service in normal circumstances. Retirement can also come as a result of unforeseen vicissitudes of life in the form of involuntary retirement which can arise from a myriad of reasons such as ill-health, disciplinary action, change in the organizational policy of the institution concerned, or redundancy occasioned by economic down-turn in the fortunes of the organization, among many other reasons (Dansan, 2002).

Attitude refers to feelings, beliefs and reactions of an individual towards an event, phenomenon, object or person (Adewuyi, 2012). …

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