Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Father Say It Differently; A Case Report Using Father-Child Interaction for Language Stimulation

Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies

Father Say It Differently; A Case Report Using Father-Child Interaction for Language Stimulation

Article excerpt

Abstract

The number of children with speech and language impairments (SLI) in Nigeria is unknown. Twenty four percent are affected in the U.S.A. Nigerian Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) are few hence, alternative means are required to facilitate these children. This study explores the effectiveness of informal communicative base intervention with an SLI child facilitated by her father. It aims to stimulate her speech development indirectly by modifying the manner in which her father communicates with her. Data was obtained by videotaped recordings of father child-interaction. Baseline language strategies were analyzed this was followed by six, one hour training sessions aimed at modifying Mr. A's communicative strategies to include language enhancers. A one year unsupervised intervention period followed. Mr. A. employed designated strategies with his daughter within his domestic routines. A second set of recordings were then made and analyzed to determine if the target strategies had been sustained. His daughter's speech was also reassessed. The results adduced that some of the modifications made during training were still in place by the termination of the study. The child's speech had improved appreciably. The study has significance for countries with a shortage of SLPs indicating that non-professionals with limited training, money and leisure time may be utilized in schools and homes to facilitate SLI children. It was suggested that further research explore how this informal interactive language stimulation model could be adapted to provide speech stimulation in the classroom by teachers when SLPs are absent.

Keywords: father-child interaction, language intervention, SLI, Nigeria.

INTRODUCTION

In the U.S.A. SLPs serve 24% of the children in schools, 7% which have specific language impairments SLI (ASHA, 2009). About 61% of school based SLPs manage children with SLI (ASHA, 2009). The incidence of SLI in Nigerian children is unknown and SLPs very few (Abiodun et al, 2012 & Nwanze, 2012). The Nigerian educational policy embraces inclusion but there are very few SLPs to serve schools. A solution may lie in training relatives and non-professionals. Research adduced that trained parents are as effective language stimulators as are SLPs (Law et al, 2003, Balkom et al, 2010). Children appear to acquire language within the frame work of social transactions with significant others, particularly parents (Snow 1984 & Levy & Nelson 1994). The interface between the nature of parental speech to language learning children and the quality of the child's subsequent output has been examined. Enhancing features of in-put language to children are as follows. Commenting on their child's line of regard along with simplified redundant speech and an interrogative mode of communication. An authoritarian communicative mode has been related to slower language development (Petersen & Sherrod 1982; Noel et al, 2008 & Lee et al, 2010). Parent- based intervention packages for children with SLI have drawn on this information. Fey et al (2003) indicated the need for language stimulation within a conversational context. Tomkins & Jeffrey (2011) found that when prompted by their mothers, the narrative produced by SLI children was more elaborate than that produced when prompted by a professional. Allen & Marshall (2011) utilized a conversational model with parents to stimulate language in SLI children. These parents maintained the target strategies 4 months after training had terminated, with significant improvements in their children's speech. Nwanze (2012) also reported sustained modifications in the elocutionary force of mothers trained to stimulate speech in SLI children with significant outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented as participants in most parent intervention models, giving this study relevance (Porter, 1995; Flippin & Crais, 2011). It is peculiar in Nigeria for a father to be his child's primary caregiver, even as a single parent. …

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