Criteria for Selecting Relevant Learning Resources by Teachers of Social Education and Ethics in Bungoma District, Kenya

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This paper examines the types of learning resources used, teachers' criteria for selecting them, the relevance of the types of learning resources selected and used for teaching Social Education and Ethics (SEE). The study was carried out in Secondary Schools in Bungoma District, Kenya, as part of a response to the public outcry over the degradation of morals in secondary schools in Kenya. A field survey design was used. Questionnaires, interview schedules and an observation checklist were used to collect data. The respondents included the personnel in charge of the District Learning Resource Centre, 1920 Social Education and Ethics students of Forms 3 and 4 classes, 120 Social Education and Ethics teachers and 80 heads of humanities department. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data and inferences were made for the same. Teachers were found to be picking any learning resource that was available or at times ignoring the use of those available. The study concluded that for better selection and effective use of types of learning resources, the stake holders like the head teachers, the Ministry of Education and all heads of departments should encourage holding of frequent meetings at departmental level; give incentives to SEE teachers and HODs. Through such meetings teachers could be enlightened on the positive impact of the use of learning resources on students. The study is useful to scholars and other readers as it highlights issues concerning the use of learning resources for teaching SEE, specifically, among other subjects. Its findings could be used by policy makers in education to put a lot of value on SEE.

Keywords: examining, criteria, teachers, social education, ethics, Bungoma district, Kenya


Learning resources for any curriculum implementation becomes one of the most important variables. As Gross et al. (1971) note, 'implementation of any program brings into mind the question of facilities, teacher capability towards the program' (p.203). According to Gross et al. (ibid.), learning resources, also referred to as facilities, are important for effective learning because they stimulate learning and foster development at desirable changes in the behaviour of a learner. Therefore, teaching SEE without the use of learning resources may adversely affect its implementation. Bruner (1963) observes that a creative use of instructional learning resources would enhance the teachers' feeling that their students have learnt more and will retain better what is learnt. This is likely to result in improved performance in the skills they are expected to develop. According to Kevin (1989), the non-availability of resources hinders teachers' attempts towards offering relevant education to the students. Therefore, availability of learning resources for teaching S.E.E could help foster SEE objectives. Maranga (1993) notes the value of learning resources by stating that resources and methods of instruction among others, affect the amount of learning that takes place. This means that for learning to be effective, the resources must be availed. The Republic of Kenya (1988) has further reinforced the value of resources by stating that the provision of quality and relevant education and training are dependent on, among other things, the supply of adequate equipment and teaching materials. This means that proper learning resources used for teaching could help provide quality education; in this context, help meet the SEE objectives of producing well behaved students. As noted by the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE, 1985), SEE syllabus endeavours to prepare the learners to face the facets of human existence which include, family, neighbourhood, school national and international life, the environment around the learner where he/she is assisted to develop virtues relevant to harmonious existence without the school. Such virtues include friendship, orderliness discipline, and sense of responsibility obedience, honesty and self-control. …