Academic journal article Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology

Validation of Sequential Problem Test (SPT) for Identification of the Children with Specific Learning Difficulties

Academic journal article Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology

Validation of Sequential Problem Test (SPT) for Identification of the Children with Specific Learning Difficulties

Article excerpt


This paper will develop an insight into the role of a teacher to identify the children with Specific Learning Difficulties (SLD) among the students in mainstream classrooms. It will enhance the quality of teacher education of the teachers working in the regular classrooms without knowing the specific learning difficulties of the students through the valid instruments and procedures. The presentation will discuss the report on the Validation of Sequential Problem Test (SPT) for identification of children with Specific Learning Difficulties from regular school classroom with purposive sampling techniques. The test was validated by the advance statistical measures. IQ and classroom achievements in Urdu were adopted to determine criterion & discriminant validities as procedures. For stability reliability, test retest reliability was used. Internal consistency was determined through Scale of Reliability Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Item Characteristics Curve (ICC) by score for each item of the tests with zero and one response was drawn for item fitness.

Keywords: specific learning difficulties, validation, sequential problem test, IQ, classroom achievements, criterion validity, discriminant validity, retest reliability, item characteristics curve, Cronbach's alpha coefficient

1. Introduction

Schoolchildren with deficiencies in different academic achievements in reading, writing and spelling usually perform their daily life activities better than to their academic achievements. They commit some common mistakes in reading words; omit some letters during reading activity or writing after copying it from any source. Such types of problems of the children affect them of academic achievements in subjects in which such basics of reading and writing are involved. If there is no problem of vision and auditory abilities with these children, then they are declared SLD in one or more specific areas of learning.

It is one of the major problems of the exceptional children especially with learning disabilities in Pakistan that they are not properly diagnosed and treated according to their specific difficulties in specific areas. Children with SLD cannot perform well in verbal tasks and they are not fairly good at non-verbal ability performance tasks. Especially their performance in academic assignments is not good. The teacher often does not know the nature of their problems, which are causing trouble in doing assignments of different nature. Children with difficulties face problem in interpretation of the words after seeing them from the board, notebook or from any other source and are unable to reproduce the same word or respond to as properly as required. Such types of problems of the children are becoming hindrances in their classroom performance. Teachers are assessing performance of their students without knowing their real deficiencies in verbal and non-verbal areas of achievement. They treat and even punish them harshly considering that students are lazy and dull without knowing the factual cause of their deviant performance. Many of the children cannot cope with circumstances developed by the teacher as a result of incompetency in assessing students. Consequently students quit their further education. Actually most of these students are at risk of Specific Learning Difficulties. Lerner (2000) reported that the percentage of SLD among all disabilities is 51. lO.this rate was noted in the US Department of Education Annual Report, 1998 that was presented to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. This is the highest percentage as compared to all other categories of disability. In Pakistan, the literacy rate at primary level is not encouraging. No exact statistics for the prevalence of SLD are available. However, literacy rate in Pakistan, according to the Literacy Commission of Pakistan, Ministry of Education Govt, of Pakistan (2000) is only 47.2 %. On the other hand, the dropout rate in primary education in Pakistan is high. …

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