Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

Emotional Expressions Related to Reversal Coordination Psychological Mechanisms

Academic journal article Canadian Social Science

Emotional Expressions Related to Reversal Coordination Psychological Mechanisms

Article excerpt

Abstract

Examine the psychological mechanisms generated by reversal coordination behaviors related to different emotional expressions.

Methods: 32 college students were tested to complete reversal learning tasks related to different expressions.

Results: Reaction time of reversal task is evidently higher than reaction time of repetitive task (F (1, 31) = 4.59, P <0.05), while accuracy rate of reversal task is evidently lower than accuracy rate of repetitive task (F (1, 31) = 8.73, P <0.05). Reversal task reaction time of angry face is higher than that of happy, sad, and neutral face (F (3, 93) = 4.92, P <0.05), while the accuracy rate is lower than that of happy, sad, and neutral face ( F (3,93) = 10.10, P <0.05).

Conclusion: Angry expression related reversal coordination behavior is harder than happy expression and sad expression related reversal coordination behavior, demonstrating that reversal coordination behavior of college students is associated with threat information alertness formed in long-term evolution.

Key words: Switch; Reversal learning; Adaptation mechanism

INTRODUCTION

In social interaction, changes of facial expressions are rapid and natural. Individuals can guess human social behaviors relying on changes of facial expressions. Therefore, facial expressions are important clues to coordinate human social behaviors. Effective facial expression coordination depends on the individual's effective identification of the facial expressions of others and the ability to coordinate self behavior based on the facial expressions obtained (Rolls, 1999). At present, there are a lot of researchers studying on individual effective facial expression identification ability and neural basis (Adolphs, 2002). Yet, only a few concentrate on individual's ability to coordinate self behavior based on facial expressions obtained (Kringebach and Rolls, 2003).

"Reversal Learning Task Paradigm" can examine how individual regulate subsequent social behavior based on external information (Robinson et al.2010; Will et al.2010). This paradigm includes two kinds of processing processes to examine the two abilities of individual as below: the ability to accept minor changes in the social environment (learning ability), and the ability to adjust self behavior based on these minor changes (reversal ability) (Rolls, 1999). Once the experiment is started, testee will see two neutral faces on the computer screen, and be requested to guess which of the faces is going to turn to a happy face. This process reflects the ability of recognize faces. When continued for four to eight correct reactions, the original sustained happy expression face will no longer be associated with happy expression. At this time, reversal is generated, indicating individual needs to adjust the original reaction. This process reflects the ability of reversal coordination.

Previous studies on reversal coordination discovered that there are differences in reversal features of individual to different potency stimuli, in presenting happy face connection reversal process and angry face connection reversal process. Separation starts at approximately 375ms when emotion face appears. Comparing the stimuli of individual turning to angry face connection with the stimuli of individual turning to happy face, P3a amplitude decreases, P3b incubation period delays (Kringebach and Rolls, 2003; Will et al.2010), indicating that it is harder for individual to reverse from angry face connection stimuli, while easier to reverse from happy connection stimuli. Through analysis on relevant studies, it is found that there are two possible reasons to cause this phenomenon: first is that individual forms alertness against threats in the process of evolution (Paulitzki et al.2008), second is that it is prevalent that individual has processing erroneous tendency against negative information. Studies on memory and attention discovered that that it is prevalent that individual has memorizing and paying attention erroneous tendency against negative information, namely individual memorizes more on negative information, and pays longer attention to negative information (Eastwood et al. …

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