Academic journal article Journal of Sociological Research

Challenges Encountered by Principals during Implementation of ICT in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya

Academic journal article Journal of Sociological Research

Challenges Encountered by Principals during Implementation of ICT in Public Secondary Schools, Kenya

Article excerpt


Information Communication Technology (ICT) has contributed greatly to advancement of education in schools globally. However, in Kenyan schools barely use ICT tools to raise teacher productivity, or manage the quality of output, or reduce costs through analyzing expenditures. This is attributed to many challenges facing most schools with regards to implementation of the technology which has resulted to slow rate of adoption and use of ICT, despite its promise and potential in education. This study surveyed some of the challenges principals faced during its implementation.

The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population included 350 public secondary school principals in Meru County. One hundred and five (105) respondents which represented 30% were sampled using stratified and simple random sampling. Questionnaires were used as main instruments for data collection. Validity of the questionnaires was ensured through judgment of experts, while reliability was established through test and re-tests method during pilot study. Ninety (85.71%) questionnaires were appropriately filled and return. Data analysis employed both inferential and descriptive statistical techniques after which the results were presented in tables supported by some discussions.

The study findings established that although principals encountered numerous challenges during implementing ICT in schools, they appeared to have positive attitudes towards its implementation. Principals' interest; their commitment and championing implementation of ICT programs in schools positively influenced the whole process. A tailor-made in-service training should be regularly arranged for them in order to shift their theoretical interest in ICT into practice.

Keywords: Challenges, principals, implementation, ICT, schools, Kenya

1. Introduction

Research suggests that implementing ICT can transform the existing school system by raising the efficiency and effectiveness of teaching and learning hence increasing students' achievement. Many studies emphasize the benefits of implementing ICT in schools. Papaioannon & Charalambous (2011) stressed that ICT in school can motivate students, stimulate their interest, increase their self-esteem and self-confidence, increase their creativity, allow greater inter-activity, enhance their critical thinking and increase their attainments among other benefits. Additionally, Laaria, (2013) notes that ICT can enhance teacher's efficiency and enthusiasm, encourage their planning and co-operation, helps them adopt student-centered teaching strategies, reduce their workload, and improve relationship between teachers and students.

Many authors argue that school leadership plays a major role in implementation of ICT in school (Makhanu & Kamper, 2012, Laaria, 2013). According to Laaria, (2013) the successful implementation of ICT in school greatly depends on the effectiveness of school leaders to manage change. The school leader plays a vital role in directing and managing positive actions that facilitates adoption and use of technology in their schools. Management of secondary schools needs to participate in formulating quality programs assisted by ICT in order to improve their school performance and foster creativity (Menjo &Boit, 2012). However, despite emphasis on implementing ICT in schools for effective management, several studies establishes that many principals are either not actively participating on its implementation or have no considerable knowledge that can aid in its implementation (laaria, 2013, Makhanu & Kamper, 2012)

Kenyan secondary school principals has numerous leadership roles, including management and organization of school curriculum, motivation and management of human resources in school, control and management of school finances, maintenance and management of school facilities including ICT infrastructure. In other words, school principals are the chief accounting officers in their schools (Laaria, 2013). …

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