Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Differential Diagnosis with Blood Oxygenation, Beta/theta Ratio, and Attention Measures

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Differential Diagnosis with Blood Oxygenation, Beta/theta Ratio, and Attention Measures

Article excerpt

KEYWORDS

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder;

Quantified electro-encephalogram;

Near-infrared hemoencefalography;

Blood oxygenation;

Ex post facto study

Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the disorders causing the greatest impact, conditioning academic learning, quality of concentration, and capacity for self-regulation and control. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV-TR) establishes the most commonly accepted criteria for diagnosis (Inattentive: ADHD-I, Hyperactive/impulsive: ADHD-HI, and Combined: ADHD-C), but currently, diverse studies disagree about whether to address it as a continuum with different degrees of intensity (subtype structure) or as specific disorders (counterposed profiles). Prior research has tested the hypothesis of differential categories with performance measures and cortical activation. The goal proposed herein is to confirm these results, incorporating a new measure, near-infrared hemoencefalography (nir-HEG), in order to control cortical activation through levels of blood oxygenation. For this purpose, we used a sample of 205 children between 8 and 13 years (105 control group, 28 with ADHD-I, 35 with ADHD-HI, and 37 with ADHD-C), administering a continuous performance test (TOVA), quantified electroencephalogram (Q-EEG), and nir-HEG. Results reflect the counterposed profiles hypothesis instead of the degrees of intensity, although the latter is more habitual and generalized.

© 2012 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.

All rights reserved.

PALABRAS CLAVE

Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad;

Electroencefalograma cuantificado;

Hemoencefalografía activa;

Oxigenación sanguínea;

Estudio ex post facto

Resumen El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) es uno de los trastornos que más condiciona el aprendizaje escolar, la calidad de la concentración y la capacidad de autorregulación y control. El DSM-IV-TR establece los criterios más comúnmente aceptados para su diagnóstico (Inatento: TDAH-I, Hiperactivo/impulsivo: TDAH-HI y Combinado: TDAH-C), pero actualmente diversos estudios discrepan si abordarlo como un continuo con diferentes grados de intensidad (estructura de subtipos) o como trastornos específicos (perfiles contrapuestos). Investigaciones previas, han contrastado la hipótesis de las categorías diferenciales con medidas de ejecución y activación cortical. Ahora, el objetivo que se plantea es confirmar estos resultados, incorporando una nueva medida, la aportada por el nir-HEG (hemoencefalografía), con el fin de controlar la activación cortical a partir de los niveles de oxigenación sanguínea. Para ello, se toma una muestra de 205 sujetos de entre 8 y 13 años (105 grupo control, 28 TDAH-I, 35 TDAH-HI y 37 TDAH-C), a los que se aplica un test de ejecución continua (TOVA), un EEG cuantificado (Q-EEG) y un hemoencefalograma (nir-HEG). Los resultados reflejan la contraposición de perfiles frente a la hipótesis de los grados de intensidad, aunque esta última sea la más habitual y generalizada.

© 2012 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.

Todos los derechos reservados

Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequent in childhood and is one of the disorders with the greatest impact on school performance. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000), between 3 and 7% of school-aged children suffer this disorder, which is diagnosed approximately three times more frequently in boys than in girls. It is characterized by a persistent behavioral pattern of inattention, excess of activity (or hyperactivity), and difficulties to control impulses (or impulsivity), leading to the differentiation of three subtypes (American Psychiatric Association, 2000): subtype with predominance of attention deficit (ADHD-I), subtype with predominance of hyperactivity-impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and combined subtype (ADHD-C). …

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