Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences

A Study of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme Aimed at Achieving Millennium Development Goals in Eradicating Water Borne Diseases in Nigeria

Academic journal article Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences

A Study of the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme Aimed at Achieving Millennium Development Goals in Eradicating Water Borne Diseases in Nigeria

Article excerpt

Abstract

The study examines the Water Borne Diseases (WBDs) eradiation programmes of the Federal Government as stipulated by the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategic Framework, with a view to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The study is significant in the sense that the findings will guide the authorities in the choice of the appropriate strategies to be adopted in the eradication of water borne diseases (WBDs) in Nigeria. The study makes use of secondary data obtained from National Bureau of Statistics affiliated office in the Federal Government Secretariat, Yola and secondary data from the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategic Framework which was obtained through the internet. The secondary data obtained from these sources are used in establishing the reported case of Water Borne Diseases and notifiable diseases in Nigeria in year 2002 (pre-intervention year and year 2007) (post-intervention period). The comparison of 2007 data on WBDS with data on same for 2002 reveals that WBDs declines by 5.75 percent. The study recommends that a search should continue for a better, potent and result-oriented intervention that will rid Nigeria of WBDs.

Keywords: water, disease, notifiable, approach, eradication

INTRODUCTION

The water supply and sanitation sector engages in the provision of services essential to the life and human development. To this end, Federal Government of Nigeria has directed sector efforts at achieving access to safe water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices by the population. This is hardly a surprise because most under-five mortality in Nigeria results from diseases that in one way or another are related to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitary facilities and unhygienic behaviour (NPC/UNICEF, 2001).

In Nigeria, the inadequacy of safe water and improved sanitation services is manifested in the prevalence of water and sanitation related diseases. Diarrhea, which results from poor sanitary/hygiene habits and consumption of water of poor quality is the second main cause of infant mortality after malaria and the third main cause of under-five mortality. The prevalence of diarrhea is higher in the rural than urban areas and in the northern zones than in the south. An estimated 150,000 to 200,000 diarrhea-related deaths occur among children below 5 each year (National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategic Framework, 2004). Certain sector-borne diseases, such as onchocerciasis (River blindness) and dracunculiasis (Guinea worm) are transmitted by two insects that are associated with water, the black fly and Cyclops flea respectively (NPC/UNICEF, 2001). Dracunculiasis, which causes morbidity more than mortality, remains an important health concern with multiple adverse effect on health, education and economic activities, especially in the rural areas. Onchocerciasis, caused by the black fly commonly found around fast moving streams of the savannah and forest zone is highly endemic in Nigeria with 40 million people exposed to the disease. Of this number, 22 million are infected and about 120,000 are estimated to be blind from the disease (National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Strategic Framework, 2004). Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease transmitted through active penetration of the human skin by the snail vector. The snails live in slow moving and stagnant water that is commonplace in Nigeria. Schistosomiasis causes morbidity in the rural areas of Nigeria. The high morbidity and mortality rates and the impact of these diseases are due to a combination of inadequate water supply and sanitation services and unhygienic practices. In acknowledgment of this fact, the drive to poverty reduction in Nigeria recognizes water supply and sanitation as an important component. The National Poverty Elimination Programme (NAPEP) views the Ministry of Water Resources as one of 14 key government agencies, relevant to the elimination of absolute poverty. …

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