Academic journal article International Education Studies

Organisational Pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of Women in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Organisational Pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of Women in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Abstract

An approach to motivation in the contemporary world of work is the implementation of Quality-of-Worklife (QWL) programmes, which is aimed at easing the pressures faced at work by employees. Quality-of-Worklife is a philosophy of improving productivity by providing workers with the opportunities required to put in their best at work, without jeopardizing their personal self improvement and responsibilities at home. The effectiveness of organisational factors and QWL programmes in the Nigerian tertiary institutions is under-researched. This study, therefore, investigates the organisational pressure on Quality-of-Worklife of women in tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. It is a survey of the ex-post facto type. 3,640 senior cadre women working in the four purposively selected degree awarding institutions in Lagos State (University of Lagos, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State University and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital) and their managers formed the population. Out of these, 1000 women and 19 managers were randomly selected as sample. A QWL survey and structured interview made up the instrument. Four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level. There were significant differences among the institutions in the compliance to International Labour Organisation (ILO) conventions and in the Quality-of-Worklife of their women workers. Moreover, there were significant relationships between QWL and sources of pressure and QWL and organisational pressure. Factors such as salary, health-care benefit, day-care services, recognition, workload and others, influenced QWL of women. Government and management committees of the tertiary institutions should ensure the reduction of organisational pressure and promote high QWL of women workers, in other to improve on their productivity and promote organisational growth.

Keywords: quality-of-worklife, organisational pressure, sources of pressure, sources of satisfaction, productivity, tertiary institutions, Nigeria

1. Introduction

World Labour Report, in Martino (1993), noted that stress has become one of the most serious health issues of contemporary times, which employers and governments have started to assess the financial damage. Job stress in the United States (U.S.) for instance, has cost industry an estimate of about US$200 billion annually, through absenteeism, diminished productivity, compensation claims, health insurance and direct medical expenses. In the United Kingdom (U.K.) also, stress was reported to likely cost up to 10% of GNP annually, through sickness, poor productivity, staffturnover and premature death. In addition, from a study conducted on Canadian workers, it was estimated that work-life conflict which results to stress on the job costs Canadians approximately $4.5 to $10 billion per year (Duxbury&Higgins, 2003). International Labour Organisation (ILO) calls stress a worldwide problem and claims that job related stress has risen from 5% to 15% of all occupational hazards and is still rising (Trainer, 2003). Stress has been found to be responsible for physical ailments like hypertension, peptic ulcer, headaches, asthma, kidney and liver diseases, to mention a few. Also, jobs experience; increasing absenteeism, reducing productivity and low team spirit.

In spite of the various ILO conventions and recommendation made in favour of women workers, the problems of working women still persists world-wide, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. For example, there are still several ways by which women are being discriminated against, which invariably pose challenges or pressures at work. There seems to be inequality in the areas of; job-placement, promotion, participation in decision-making, responsibilities and opportunities, trade union activities and job retention. The rate of women unemployment is likely higher than that of men, because whenever a downsizing or retrenchment is to take place in an organisation, women are mostly affected(Jeremigbe 1992, Huyer 1997, Vukor-Quarshie 2002). …

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