Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Climate Change Mitigation Approaches in Bangladesh

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Climate Change Mitigation Approaches in Bangladesh

Article excerpt

Opportunities of Climate Change Adaptation Approaches and Introducing Renewable Energy in Bangladesh

Abstract

Being a densely populated country with limited natural resources, Bangladesh is deadly suffering from the energy crisis since the past few decades. The geographical location of the country has even made it more vulnerable to the natural disasters. As a result, the country is experiencing the impact of current weather change and the economy is struggling to improve against the periodic occurrence of natural calamities such as cyclones, floods and drought. In spite of being in the row of least carbon producers, Bangladesh is one of the worst sufferers. Due to the limitation in fossil fuel reserve, the only way to minimize the supply-demand gaps in the energy sector is switching towards the alternative renewable energy sources. The initiatives in sourcing out alternative energy resources with low carbon emission from both the government and the private investors are still on the infancy stages. Local investors have started the initiations to switch towards renewable energy systems. There have been some remarkable achievements as the rural people have started using these green energy systems. Government has already taken necessary steps to energize the local economy through inspiring them by low interest loan schemes, and introducing the energy usage in the government owned offices. The renewable energy system is showing a lot of promise in Bangladesh, with the proper technical support and large-scale production Bangladesh will be one of the world leaders in adaptation of renewable energy system.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, low carbon emission, renewable energy, green energy

1. Introduction

Bangladesh is a poor, densely populated country, with about 146 million people, which is facing major challenges to the economic development strategy, since it records the lowest rate of access to modern energy services among the South East Asia. In 2010 (Akter, 1997), only about 40 percent of population had access to electricity, which loomed as a major constraint to economic growth and quality of life. The energy consumption is mainly in the form of electricity and about 82% (Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources [MPEMR], 2008) electricity of the country is produced by natural gas.

However, the energy usage and awareness among the people of this country still lies within the process of traditional concept. With the limited amount of natural gas there is a shortage of about 2000 MW of power generation with a growing demand of 650 MW per year (Bhowmik, 2008). As on September 2012 (Bhowmik, 2008) only 1800 MMSCFD of natural gas is being supplied to an overall demand of 2300 MMSCFD. The current gap in the demand and production in the power sector have forced hundreds of manufacturing firms across the country to shut down.

In FY 2007-08, the total installed generation capacity of Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) was 5202 MW including 1330 MW in Independent Power Producers (IPP) and 58 MW in rental Power Plant. On the Renewable Energy Report of Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Dr. Neem Chandra Bhowmik (Bhowmik, 2008) stated the country's total power generation from different fuels, as shown

In 2005, in 2005, in a mission of addressing immediate and urgent adaptation activities, National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) has been founded by GOB along with other least developed countries prepared. The Bangladesh NAPA contains 15 priority projects for implementation with the support of the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The first priority adaptation activity - Community Based Coastal Forestation Program under NAPA - is currently being implemented by the Department of Forests at a cost of US$ 4 million (Nayak, 2011). Recently NAPA has been updated by the Department of Environment and Forests. …

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