Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Global Corruption and Governance in Nigeria

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Global Corruption and Governance in Nigeria

Article excerpt

Abstract

The paper focused on governance in Nigeria vis-à-vis global corruption. It examined the various ways by which global corruption has affected governance in Nigeria. Key concepts were discussed, namely, corruption, governance, global corruption and characteristics of global corruption. The paper which defined corruption as impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle, also identified its causes as greed, love of money, and excessive pleasure, among others. Corruption was found to have a symbiotic relationship with poverty. Global corruption, characterized by the rich western countries supporting dictatorship in developing countries and destabilizing democracies in these countries for their selfish purpose, is found to be responsible for many failing states in the Third World countries, Nigeria as a typical example. While the paper identified the attributes of good governance as transparency, rule of law, accountability, efficiency, effectiveness, equity, and responsiveness, these were found to be almost out of place in the governance system in Nigeria thus contributing to governance failure in the country. The paper suggested the way forward as being transparency in every transaction, especially transactions between the donor western countries and the recipient countries, among others. The paper concluded that in addition to internal causes, namely ethnicity, religious intolerance, nepotism, and bad leadership, global corruption has greatly contributed to governance failure in Nigeria.

Keywords: global corruption, governance, corruption, leadership

1. Introduction

Governance in Nigeria dates back to the pre-independent period. This was an era when the colonial masters were at the helms of affairs. At independence in 1960, governance changed from the hands of the British colonial masters to the hands of Nigerians. The Parliamentary system of government, patterned after the British system, was adopted. However, the first Republic led by Sir Tafawa Balewa collapsed on January 15, 1966 with the coup-d'état led by Major Patrick Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. As a result of the coup, the Constitution of Nigeria was suspended. The coup brought on board Major-General J.T.U. Aguiyi-Ironsi as the Head of Military Government and Commander in-Chief of the Armed Forces. In August of 1966, another coup-d'etat terminated the regime of Aguiyi-Ironsi and brought to power Colonel Yakubu Gowon who ruled for 9 years. Gowon's government was terminated in a military coup in 1975 and it ushered in Brigadier Murtala Muhammed who was assassinated during the Dimka Coup on February 13, 1976. His second in command, General Olusegun Obasanjo, succeeded him and continued with the transition programme which he (Murtala Muhammed) started on getting to power. It was that transition programme that brought in the Second Republic on October 1, 1979. Obasanjo's government lasted until 1979 after organizing an election among 5 political parties. These parties were Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), National Party of Nigeria (NPN), Great Nigeria People's Party (GNPP), Nigerian People's Party (NPP) and People's Redemption Party (PRP). The election was won by Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the NPN. By December 31, 1983, Shagari was deposed in a bloodless military coup which ushered in Major-General Muhammadu Buhari. President Shagari's regime was "perceived to be notoriously corrupt and incompetent (http://www.iss.co.za/af/profiles/nigeria/politics.htm of 2/19/2012). In August 1985, another bloodless military coup that ousted General Buhari was staged by Major-General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida who ruled until 1993. He was the first military leader to call himself "President". By 1992, Babangida introduced what was described as a diarchy into the governance system of Nigeria. This system had the military president at the centre and the civilian at the helms of affairs at the state and local government levels. Babangida embarked on a transition to civilian rule programme that led to the general elections in 1993. …

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