Academic journal article CEPS Journal : Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal

Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

Academic journal article CEPS Journal : Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal

Changing University Students' Alternative Conceptions of Optics by Active Learning

Article excerpt

Active learning is individual and group participation in effective activities such as in-class observing, writing, experimenting, discussion, solving prob- lems, and talking about to-be-learned topics. Some instructors believe that ac- tive learning is impossible, or at least extremely difficult to achieve in large lec- ture sessions. Nevertheless, the truly impressive implementation results of the SCALE-UP learning environment suggest that such beliefs are false (Beichner et al., 2000). In this study, we present a design of an active learning environ- ment with positive effect on students. The design is based on the following elements: (1) helping students to learn from interactive lecture experiment; (2) guiding students to use justified explanation and prediction after observing and exploring a phenomenon; (3) developing a conceptual question sequence designed for use in an interactive lecture with students answering questions in worksheets by writing and drawing; (4) evaluating students' conceptual change and gains by questions related to light reflection, refraction, and im- age formation in an exam held a week after the active learning session. Data were collected from 95 science freshmen with different secondary school backgrounds. They participated in geometrical optics classes organized for collecting research results during and after only one active learning session. The results have showed that around 60% of the students changed their initial alternative conceptions of vision and of image formation. It was also found that a large group of university students is likely to be engaged in active learn- ing, shifting from a passive role they usually play during teacher's lectures.

Keywords: Active learning; Alternative conceptions; Geometrical optics; Large-enrolment; University students

Spreminjanje alternativnih pojmovanj v optiki z aktivnim ucenjem pri studentih

Zalkida Hadzibegovic* in Josip Slisko

Aktivno ucenje je individualno in skupinsko sodelovanje pri aktivnostih, kot so: opazovanje v razredu, pisanje, eksperimentiranje, diskutiranje, resevanje problemov in pogovarjanje o temah, ki naj bi se jih naucili. Nekateri predavatelji menijo, da je aktivno ucenje pri predavanjih z veliko udelezbo nemogoce ali pa vsaj zelo tezavno. Vendar pa izsledki vpeljave ucnega okolja SCALE-UP govorijo proti takim prepricanjem (Beichner et al., 2000). V studiji bova predstavila model okolja za ak- tivno ucenje s pozitivnim ucinkom na studente. Model temelji na na- slednjih postavkah: 1) ucenje studentov s pomocjo eksperimentiranja v sklopu predavanj; 2) usmerjanje studentov pri pravilnih razlagah in napovedih po opazovanju in raziskovanju pojava; 3) priprava niza kon- ceptualnih vprasanj za uporabo v sklopu interaktivnega predavanja, pri katerem studentje pisno in s skiciranjem odgovarjajo na vprasanja na delovnem listu; 4) evalvacija konceptualnih sprememb in nadgradenj pri izpitnih vprasanjih o odboju in lomu svetlobe ter o nastanku slike, ki so bile izvedene en teden po koncu ucnega posega. Vzorec je zajemal 95 studentov prvega letnika naravoslovnih studijskih smeri z razlicno predhodno srednjesolsko izobrazbo. Studentje so sodelovali pri urah ak- tivnega ucenja o geometrijski optiki, ki so bile izvedene enkrat - samo za namen studije. Izsledki kazejo, da je svojo prvotno predstavo o vidu in oblikovanju slike spremenilo okoli 60 odstotkov studentov. Ugoto- vitve kazejo tudi, da je aktivno ucenje povsem mogoce vpeljati v veliko skupino studentov in spremeniti obicajno pasivno vlogo studentov med tradicionalnimi oblikami predavanj.

Kljucne besede: aktivno ucenje, alternativni koncepti, geometricna op- tika, mnozicni vpis, univerzitetni studentje

Introduction

During their education, science students are expected to develop critical thinking and learning skills to address novel problem-solving and team-work- based issues that will be essential in their future careers and lives. Teachers have a crucial role in leading students to achieve such high level of work competen- cies in a knowledge-based economy and society. …

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