Academic journal article Journal of Business and Educational Leadership

The Rise and Demise of the Courtyard Restaurant: A Case Study

Academic journal article Journal of Business and Educational Leadership

The Rise and Demise of the Courtyard Restaurant: A Case Study

Article excerpt

BACKGROUND

There are many different management approaches that can be used in the restaurant industry and tailored specifically for size, client turnover, number of employees, etc. Using the right approach is essential for the successful operation of a restaurant. There are five schools of management thought: classical, behavioral, management science, quality management and systems. A brief overview of each follows.

The classical school stressed the important features of management and their relationships to the production process (Odgers, 2005). The Scientific Management approach came into use in the early years of the 20th century and although generally used by production processes, offers some advantages to many other industries. This approach encompassed using four objectives: 1) developing a science for each element of an employees' work, 2) training and development of workers, 3) development of a spirit of cooperation between employees and management and lastly 4) the equal division of work between employees and management. Frederick Taylors' framework for organization included clear delineation of authority, responsibility, separation of planning from operations, incentives for workers, management by exception, and task specializations (ACCEL Team Development, 2010). In Total Entity Management, Henri Fayol stated a series of management principles by functions, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling (Odgers, 2005).

Increasing attention to the human element in organizations is the basic premise of the behavioral school and found that workers are interested in more than just money. Elton Mayos' Hawthorne experiments found that changes in the work environment had little effect on productivity whereas productivity increased when management recognized not only the physical but the emotion welfare of employee, when reasons for management decisions were provided and when employees were made aware that management appreciated the importance of their work (Odgers, 2005). Another theory in the behavioral school was created by Abraham Maslow who showed that everyone is motivated by fulfilling a hierarchy of needs; once lower-level needs are satisfied, they are no longer motivating factors so other higher-level needs take their place. Theory X and Theory Y models were developed by Douglas McGregor and have their place within the behavioral school of thought. Theory X assumes that people have an inherent dislike of work, lack ambition and will avoid it if they can. These employees prefer to be followers rather than leaders and thus punishment, threat, or close supervision may be necessary for motivating those individuals. Theory Y, on the other hand, assumes work is a natural extension of play and rest therefore employees accept the responsibility of self-direction and self-control (ACCEL Team Development, 2010). Herzbergs' motivation-hygiene theory and Druckers' management by objectives also fall in this school of thought.

The Management Science School uses higher level mathematical and engineering skills to solve decision-making problems. Work sampling, queuing theory and forecasting are all examples of quantitative business methods used to address complex decisions. The rapid and accurate calculations of a computer provide not only high quality data but also saves time and money for a company (Cliffhotes.com, 2011). Total Quality Management, (TQM) or the Quality Management School, is a philosophy that corporations put into place for continuous improvement of all areas of the organization. Five principles used with TQM are to: 1) produce quality work the first time, 2) focus on the customer, 3) have a strategic approach to improvement, 4) improve continuously and 5) encourage mutual respect and teamwork. The main focus is on teamwork, lowering costs and increasing customer satisfaction (Cliffhotes.com, 2011). Theory Z, by William Ouchi, assumes the abilities and talents of the employee are more important than the job itself. …

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