Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Role of Mass Communication in Adult Education

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Role of Mass Communication in Adult Education

Article excerpt


Illiteracy in Pakistan is a curse which must be liquidated as early as possible. The pity is that even 66 years of independence, illiteracy could not be wiped out. It is an undisputed fact that 100 percent literacy cannot be achieved in near future through formal education system alone. For the purpose the utility of mass communication is essential as an alternative system of education for achieving the cherished goal of 100 percent literacy effort in Pakistan.

Keywords: Mass Communication, Adult Education, Literacy, Educational Policy, Formal Education


Launching of massive Adult Education Programme

The growing number of illiterate in Pakistan is a matter of great concern. Low literacy is not encouraging for the socio-economic growth. During the past six decade, Pakistan has tried to tackle the problem of illiteracy haphazardly. According to UNESCO (1992, p.17) "Pakistan is a state based on Islam which lays great emphasis on education. Various Governments in Pakistan have framed education policies to achieve the universalization of primary education and have fixed target date one after another but still the goal has not been achieved" (Jatoi,1993, pp.7-8) further pointed out the literacy situation as follow:

"However, there has been considerable expansion in number of educational institutions and enrolment. Despite the quantitative jumps, Pakistan still stands in the low levels even when compared to the developing countries

Several educational policies have been formulated since the birth of Pakistan in 1947 to eradicate illiteracy within the shortest possible time through universalization of primary education and a massive adult education programme, such education policies are as follows:

1. Ml Pakistan educational conference 1947 was organised by Ministry of Education (1947, pp.45-46) with a view to enhance literacy rate. Central Advisory Board was established to launch literacy drive support by radio broadcasts and other audio-visual aids. The results were not encouraging due to lack of resources.

2. The National Commission for education recommended that school and college students should be used as teachers. It was recommended by National Education Commission (1959,pp,200-201) that:

i. The use of school children as teacher in an effort to make their parents literate.

ii. The use of un-graduate college students as adult literacy teachers.

iii. The use of one literate adult to teach another under "each one teaches one" approach.

Despite of the above recommendations, the goal could not be achieved due to lack of student's interests.

3. The National Education Policy (1970, p.5) recommended to establish National Education Corp for imparting literacy to 5 million adult illiterates within next five years. Due to political instability in the country, war with India, the target could not be achieved.

4. Educational Policy (1972-1980, p.5) recommended 2,76,000 literacy centres for education of 11 million illiterates, 500 Factory schools, 3500 Farm Schools, 5000 Women Education centres and 300 out of school centres. However mismanagement, lack of resources, lack of any check and control system were the causes of failure of the policy.

5. National Education Policy (1979, p.5) introduced television and radio for teaching to illiterates. Allama Iqbal Open University was given responsibility to train 10,000 literacy teachers. The results of this education policy were hopeful to some extent but for from the set target. It was because of the non- sincerity, mal-appropriation of funds and non-cooperation of bureaucracy were the reason to fulfil the targets.

6. National Education Policy (1992, p.21) recommended the primary education compulsory, to reduce dropout rate, to support NGO'S and GO'S and National Education Training Commission was established to co-ordinate all the activity. This policy produced some positive results but frequent changes in the political governments gave a severe setback to this policy. …

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