Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Analysis of L1 Teaching Programs in England, Canada, the USA and Australia regarding Media Literacy and Their Applicability to Turkish Language Teaching*

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

The Analysis of L1 Teaching Programs in England, Canada, the USA and Australia regarding Media Literacy and Their Applicability to Turkish Language Teaching*

Article excerpt

Abstract

Two basic approaches namely "independent lesson approach" and "integration approach" appear in teaching media literacy. Media literacy is regarded as a separate lesson in the education program like mathematics and social sciences in "independent lesson approach". However, in "integration approach", activities and outcomes of media literacy are related in an existing course. It has been observed that by the 1990s, media devices and messages started to have a stronger impact on the life of a society which in turn resulted in adoption of integration approach in teaching media literacy by developed countries. Such countries specifically related media literacy specifically with teaching L1. In this study, the countries which were regarded as leaders in teaching media literacy namely England, Canada (the state of Ontario), USA, and Australia L1 teaching programs were taken into consideration in terms of relating L1 teaching with teaching media literacy; therefore, common themes were identified in their programs. A total number of 487 pages of document and 497 gains of L1 teaching programs of these countries were investigated by means of document investigation method. To analyse the data, content analysis was used. In this respect, the first analysis dealt with countries and further analysis identified the common themes of media literacy gains in L1 teaching programs. To analyse the data a qualitative data analysis program MAXQDA® was used. The results indicated that the investigated teaching programs involved media literacy gains and activities at an important level with the ratio of 37.2%. Approximately, two thirds of media literacy gains are related with "comprehension" component of media literacy whereas the rest deals with its "production" component. The component of "comprehension" includes the gains in four basic themes namely "understanding the genre of the text", "questioning the text", "identifying the information and ideas in the text", and "thinking the impact of media messages on the other people" in 21 sub-themes. The component of "production" includes the gains in four basic themes namely "forming content", "using methodological information in production", "common production and interaction", "evaluating the own product of message" in 14 sub-themes.

Key Words

Australia, Canada, England, L1 Teaching Programs, Teaching Media Literacy, Turkish Language Teaching, United States of America.

There are several studies in international literature about how media literacy can be included within educational systems (Considine, 1990; Duncan, 1989; Kahn & Master, 1992; Melamed, 1989; Scharrer, 2003; Tuggle, Sneed, & Wulfmeyer, 1999). Based on these studies and applications of the countries, it is possible to state that there are two types of application in this connection as (i) independent course approach and (ii) integration approach with a current course curriculum.

Independent Course Approach

As the name of approach refers, it means integrating media literacy into the educational system as a separate course (Semali, 2000). It defends that integrating the applications oriented to media literacy education into the educational system as a separate course is necessary as same with mathematics, science, and music courses (Hobbs, 1998, p. 25; Kress, 1992, p. 200). As we look at the media literacy education model applied in Turkey, it is seen that independent course approach has been adopted. This course, called as "Media Literacy", is elective and takes two hours per week (Altun, 2008; Radyo Televizyon Üst Kurumu [RTÜK], 2007).

Integration Approach

The other approach to position media literacy within educational systems is to integrate gains and activities of media literacy education within current definite courses in the education system. This approach have the risk to perform media text analysis and production activities superficially, but have the potential to introduce all students in the level of basic education with media criticism and production activities at the same time (Altun, 2005; Erstad, 1997; Richards, 1992). …

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