Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Impact of Negative Workplace Factors and the Moderator Effects of Gender on Critical Organisational Climate for Effectiveness

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Impact of Negative Workplace Factors and the Moderator Effects of Gender on Critical Organisational Climate for Effectiveness

Article excerpt

The study examined the relationship between negative workplace factors (measured as work stress and workplace bullying) and critical organisational climate for effectiveness, and the moderator effects of gender in the relationship. Data were collected from 278 civil service employees in government establishments in Nigeria. Results of hierarchical regression analysis revealed that work stress (β = -.20, P < .001) and gender (β = -.49, p < .001) significantly predicted critical organisational climate for effectiveness but workplace bullying was non-significant. Gender significantly moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and critical organisational climate for effectiveness such that the negative relationship between workplace bullying and critical organisational climate for effectiveness was non-significant for men (r = -.05, n.s.) but highly significant for women (r = -.54, p < .001). Contrary to hypothesis, gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between work stress and organisational climate for effectiveness. The practical implications of findings for intervention activities in the civil service are discussed.

Keywords: work stress, workplace bullying, organisational climate, effectiveness, gender

Organisational effectiveness is a concept which has been defined in different ways by different researchers. The numerous definitions of organisational effectiveness can be classified into two main blocks, namely, the simplistic and holistic perspectives. The simplistic school of thought basically views organisational effectiveness as the extent to which an organisation achieves the outcomes it intends to produce (Robins, 1998). The holistic perspective characterise organisational effectiveness as capturing a myriad of internal organisational performance outcomes normally associated with more efficient or effective operations and other external measures that relate to considerations that are broader than those simply associated with economic valuation (Richard, Devinney, Yip & Johnson, 2009). Either way, organisations cannot achieve the goal of effectively providing goods and/services without employees who carry out needed organisational functions (Okurame, 2003). In the final analysis, therefore, organisational effectiveness is a reflection of the overall effort or aggregate performance of employees; transcending just having employees perform their duties to acting beyond stipulated roles as official requirements are inadequate for achieving organisational effectiveness (Elankumaran, 2004; Liao & Lee, 2009; Okurame, 2012b; Pfeffer, 1994).

Organisational effectiveness is associated with numerous benefits including high quality goods and services, customer satisfaction and sustained clientele base, job satisfaction and employee retention, continual profit and revenue, and positive brand and corporate image. These benefits make organisational effectiveness an important concern of modern organisations and create a need for empirical guidance on how it can be fostered and sustained. However, despite the increasing concern for organisational effectiveness, there is a dearth of studies in this area. Empirical investigations have been stalled by the complexity of organisational effectiveness and the lack of a globally accepted valid measure of the construct. While some authors (Connolly, Conlon & Deutsch, 1980; Goodman, Atkin & Schoorman, 1983; Nord, 1983) have argued that research on organisational effectiveness should cease until a valid measure is found, others call for continued research using simple indicators as not studying organisational effectiveness will harm organisations and keep consensual criteria of effectiveness from emerging (Cameron, 1986). Thus, investigations have continued using indicators of organisational effectiveness such as productivity, profits, growth and rate of turnover, quality of goods and services, customer satisfaction, capacity of the organisation, goal attainment and outcome, and organisational climate. …

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