Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Predicting Job Satisfaction of Married Female Employees: The Role of Age and Emotional Intelligence

Academic journal article Gender & Behaviour

Predicting Job Satisfaction of Married Female Employees: The Role of Age and Emotional Intelligence

Article excerpt

Although job satisfaction has enjoyed robust research attention, there still remains a gap in literature regarding the link between emotions and job satisfaction. The present study extended prior job satisfaction literature by investigating how emotional intelligence is related to job satisfaction of married female employees. Respondents consisted of 258 female employees purposively selected for the study. All participants in the study were married. Questionnaire containing standardized scales that measured emotional intelligence and job satisfaction was administered on participants after obtaining their consent. Their ages ranged from 21-59 years with a mean age of 36.55 years and standard deviation of 9.91years. Job position distribution showed that there were 90 junior level staff, 109 senior level staff and 58 management level staff. The least organizational tenure was 3years. Hypotheses were generated on the basis of the emotional intelligence and job satisfaction literatures. Result showed significant difference in job satisfaction of participants. Specifically, participants with higher emotional intelligence had higher level of job satisfaction than those with lower emotional intelligence, (p<.01). Also, there was significant negative relationship between age and job satisfaction (<.05). Emotional intelligence training that encompasses emotional awareness, regulation, appraisal etc to empower married female employees was recommended.

Key words: female employees, job satisfaction, emotional intelligence, age.

Female employees are becoming a substantial proportion of the general workforce globally. This is evident in the increasing number of females who have gained membership in organizations across occupations (Benz, 2005; Imoukhuede, 2001; ILO, 2009; Kinnear, 2011; Olagbegi & Afolabi, 2004; Tubeza, 2012; United Nations, 2010). Although researchers have began investigating differences in job attitudes among female employees, majority of the study have been conducted using private sector and profit-driven organizations, thereby leaving employees in public sector organizations scarcely attended to. Job satisfaction, which is a measure of the gap between what an employee expected from the job and what they actually got from it (Heslop, Davey Smith, Metcalfe, Maclead, & Hart, 2002) has received considerable attention in the organizational behavior literature because of its relationship with organizational desirable outcomes.

Whereas there is ample evidence indicating that the narrowing of the gender gap in the workforce of most organizations with more females being employed may have ignited growing interest among researchers towards understanding the satisfaction level of female workers (Carr, Ash, Friedman, Scaramucci, Barnett, et al, 2007; Hagedorn, 1996; Okpara, Squillace & Erondu, 2005, Pook, Füstös, & Marian, 2003), the role emotions contribute to job satisfaction remains a relatively unexplored research area. This is in spite of findings that emotions may influence job satisfaction (Fisher, 2000). Since women are perceived as being kind, helpful, sympathetic and concerned about others (Heilman, 2001), which reflect emotional awareness, it may be relevant to explore how levels of emotional intelligence relate to job satisfaction of female employees.

Emotional intelligence is the ability of an individual to recognize and regulate emotions in themselves and in significant others (Goleman, 1995). Mayer and Salovey (1997) compartmentalized emotional intelligence into four facets: appraisal of emotion in self, recognition of emotion in others, regulation of emotion, and use of emotion to promote performance. Humans are by nature emotional beings, but there exists significant differences in "awareness of one's own emotions and others' feelings and emotions, ability to discriminate these emotions and to regulate to one's thinking and actions based on this awareness" (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). …

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