This paper analyzes the impact of long-term orientation and perceived consumer effectiveness on environmentally/ecologically conscious consumer behavior in the context of Turkey. Turkey is a collectivist, high-context culture of significant geo-political importance with unique socio-cultural traits. The population is young and natural resources are rich. In Turkey, environmental consciousness is a relatively less internalized concept to which people are just recently beginning to adjust. All of this makes Turkey an interesting market to study the environmentally conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) construct. Looking at the impact of long-term orientation on ECCB is also one of the important contributions of this paper since environmental consciousness requires a long-term view of the world around us. Building upon the adaptation and extension of past research in the area, data are collected from 97 respondents, 80 per cent of whom are undergraduate college students, and analyzed through commonly used statistical methods. The measures used are similar to those used in previous studies. Environmentally conscious consumer behavior measure is adapted from Roberts (1996b) and McCarty and Shrum (1994). Roberts' (1996b) perceived consumer effectiveness measure is used in the study. Long-term orientation scale is adapted from Bearden, Money and Nevins (2006).
Keywords: environmentally conscious consumer behavior, green marketing, perceived consumer effectiveness, long-term orientation, Turkey
For the last few decades, concepts of environmentalism and environmental concern have been on the rise. (Chan and Lau, 2000; Han, Hsu, and Lee, 2009). Customers have become more environmentally conscious and many consumers put forth a significant effort to buy eco-friendly products and services from eco-friendly firms (Roberts, 1996; Kalafatis, Pollard, East, and Tsogas, 1999). Many researchers have looked at numerous drivers of environmentally conscious consumer behavior (ECCB) in an attempt to understand the psychological, economic, cultural, and other influencers of the phenomenon (Roberts, 1996; Ger, 1999; Sarigollu, 2009). In a similar effort, this study aims to shed light onto the effects of long-term orientation and perceived customer effectiveness together and independently on environmentally conscious consumer behavior in Turkey, an emerging and culturally interesting market. Turkey is a collectivist, high-context culture of significant geo-political importance with unique socio-cultural traits where environmental consciousness is a relatively less internalized concept to which people are just recently beginning to adjust.
2. Background Literature
2.1 Environmentally Conscious Consumer Behavior (ECCB)
Environmentally conscious consumer behavior has been a popular topic for research in the marketing academia. Various aspects of sensitivity to environmental protection have been studied in the literature. The 1990s, for example, were named the "decade of the environment" (Drumwright, 1994), as social and environmental concerns had grown to be perceived as more important. Today, environmental concerns have become more vivid and awareness has increased. Kotler (2003) predicted that "societal marketing concept" would be one of the key elements of firms' marketing strategies, and this prediction has proven to be correct. Even though environmental concerns have increased over the past twenty years, environmentally friendly brands have received significantly low levels of market share (Kalafatis et al., 1999). Kalafatis et al. (1999) states and cites two explanations for this discrepancy. First explanation is that economic considerations are more important than environmental concerns when it comes to purchase behavior, and the second is the multifaceted nature of environmental concern influencing some behaviors and not others.
The concept of "environmentally conscious consumer" has been defined in the literature in a variety of ways. …