Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Development Process and Its Implication on the Native Land Ownership

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Development Process and Its Implication on the Native Land Ownership

Article excerpt

Abstract

Development process is a part of government and policy makers' agenda to introduce and implement the policies in order to create wealth creation as well as to improve livelihood in both rural and urban areas. To avoid over-concentration of development in urban areas, new development schemes for rural area development are also ventured. As a result of this scheme, two strategies to occupy rural land often utilized by the capitalist ventures in collaboration with the private developers are the land purchasing from the native land owners and the land acquisition from the state authorities. The resulting effect of these actions has been the changing pattern in terms of land ownership to the land losing phenomenon. The aim of this article is to analyse the pattern and the mechanism underlying the lost of the Malay land ownership in the District of Larut, Matang and Selama, Perak from year 2000 to 2008 as a consequent of development process. Utilizing the data collected from Department of Valuation and Property Services, Malaysia, land transaction were recorded. The results of the aggregate land transaction between Malay seller vs non-Malay buyer and non-Malay seller vs. Malay buyer still show the huge differences in number of land transactions and land sizes. While there were 179 pieces with an equivalent to 204.79 hectares of land not returned to the Malay owners, however, the land transaction between the Malays vs. non-Malay buyer also decrease. Two major factors have been identified as the impetus of such undertaking, i) a rise of awareness of the Northern economic Northern Corridor Economic Region impact on rural areas and ii) the rise of awareness of land ownership as a source of supremacy. It is imperative more awareness programmes on the importance of land ownership and generating wealth commercially be given to the rural community to ensure the native land supremacy in the future.

Keywords: Malay land ownership, land development, native land owner, land acquisition

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

1. Introduction

Land is an important asset for economic development utilized by varying actors ranging from an individual to the larger organization and government agencies. Without land, not only economic development activities and programs hardly been implemented, it can adversely impact on the community's livelihood, land rights and wealth creation. The main issues related to land however, are their rights and ownership to facilitate productive activities. In contemporary era, the Malay land ownership pattern has been seen reducing because of the lack of human ability to protect their right towards the land ownership, neglect of government policies' implementation and the owners themselves.

Ideally, land owned by the Malays should have increased over time, and the Malays should not only depend on the land gazette under existing laws such as the Malay Reservation Enactment, Land Development schemes implemented by the FELDA, FELCRA and the Bumiputra's quota for assets ownership including land under the New Economic Policy (NEP 1970-1990) (Ramaswamy, 2000; Harun, 2006; Hussain,1996; Nik Abdul Rashid, 1993). The National Development Plans provide direct support to this enhancement. However, the tendency of the Malays to dispose their land for development purposes was after they were offered a favorable price from the property developers, mostly from the non-Malays, is one of the main issues where the Malays lose their land. Simply, there exists a drastic 'land reduction' in the land bank of the rural areas. This scenario is also a pressing issue in some countries such as the United States of America, Canada, the Federation of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Singapore, where the native became minority communities and the immigrants dominated the country in terms of capital or assets (Shal, 2003; Frankema, 2006).

The existing literature assert on the four critical issues related to the Malay land ownership in Malaysia; namely the seize of the land by the moneylenders, land acquisition, dispute of the inheritance lands and voluntary disposal of land. …

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