Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Philosophy of Education in Indonesia: Theory and Thoughts of Institutionalized State (PANCASILA)

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Philosophy of Education in Indonesia: Theory and Thoughts of Institutionalized State (PANCASILA)

Article excerpt

Abstract

This study proposes for the urgency of the Ideal Image of Indonesian People (Citra Ideal Manusia Indonesia) in the Philosophical Constructs of Pancasila National Education in the Indonesian Philosophical Construct of National Education. Indonesian Philosophical Construct of National Education is expected to be a dynamic and contextual frame in the development of theory, praxis education system and nationality, as well as a reference in solving problems of national education from a philosophical point of view. This type of study is a philosophical study, namely hermeneutical studies. The objective of this study is the works of "founding fathers" (especially Bung Karno) of Pancasila, and the works of Ki Hajar Dewantara, Notonagoro and Driyarkara about the Pancasila philosophy, about education and nationality, and a dialogue with the works of other relevant figures, and a reflection on the various national education philosophical issues. The methodology used is hermeneutical dialectic. The results of the study show the Urgency Pancasila as a basic philosophy for Indonesian nation. The ideal image of Indonesian human is the central focus of development and implementation of Indonesian national education system. The concept of the ideal image can be constructed by the Philosophical Construct of Pancasila National Education. Pancasila was propagated by Bung Karno and contains the values of the ideal and quite remarkable superiority as the basic philosophy of the state which to date its earnest practice has not been matched in various fields of life. Pancasila need to be supported with efforts by the construct of national education philosophy of Pancasila, and the ideal image of the Indonesian people.

Keywords: Pancasila, philosophy of education, national, philosophy

1. Introduction

In the latest decade, it is observed in various fields including education that technical thinking has replaced basic and comprehensive thinking. In addition, various education reform efforts seem more likely to be patchy and partial, disintegrative, not firmly built as a unity to achieve the goals of national education. In order to implement national education, especially in guiding the reform efforts of national education, there is a need for a philosophical reference, i.e., Philosophical construct of Pancasila National Education, to provide the way of figuring out the ideal image of Indonesian people who may be a reference to the educational attainment of nationhood.

Notonagoro (Dwi Siswoyo, 2013) affirms that the characteristical feature of National Education is the development of ability/skillfulness and personality that are united, organized, harmonized and dynamic (sifat dwi tunggal pendidikan kebangsaan ialah pengembangan keperibadian dan kemampuan/keahlian, dalam kesatuan organis harmonis dan dinamis). Therefore, it should always be consolidated so that Indonesia will be a developed nation, dignified, and have a strong identity and dynamic, and able to face the challenges nationally and globally. Education is a human phenomenon (Driyarkara, 1980), that education is a phenomenon of human nationality Indonesia. The goal of education is to improve man as a man (Dwi Siswoyo, 2013), to humanize Indonesian man who can implement and develop his life in the encounter and interaction with others and the world, as well as in his relationship with God.

The development of Indonesian National Education Philosophy, that is Philosophy of Pancasila National Education, is hoped to play a role as a contextual and dynamic source for theory and ptactice of national education in Indonesia. The formal objective of National Education Philosophy is to radically analyze all of the phenomena in education and those which are related to them from a comprehensive and integrated perspective. An ideal form of National Education refers to the development of ability/skillfulness and personality that are united, organized, harmonized and dynamic (dalam kesatuan organis harmonis dan dinamis) in ensuring a complete human development in Indonesia. …

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