Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Nation's Character Education Based on the Social Capital Theory

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Nation's Character Education Based on the Social Capital Theory

Article excerpt

Abstract

Multi-dimensional crisis faced by a country could weaken national character. The crisis in national character can deteriorate the social and cultural identity of a country, while there is identity that is necessary to maintain the existence of the country in the era of globalization. One of the factors that influence human nature is a weakened role of social capital. This study aims to describe the elements of social capital that is owned by the school, and the role of social capital in character education. The population of this study is the schools in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Sample were recruited from among teachers and principals from 17 elementary schools, 18 lower secondary schools and 16 high schools. The criteria for selection of schools are based on various levels of academic achievement. The data are collected from in-depth interviews and a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions administered on the principals and teachers. The questions used are adapted from a questionnaire on social capital measure written by the World Bank. The steps taken in the process of analyzing qualitative research is data collection, data reduction, data display, conclusion, and data validation. The results of studies have concluded that school social capital and tried to strengthen elements such as (a) participation and social networks, (b) reciprocity, (c) trust, (d) social norms, (e) social value, and (f ) proactive action. It was found that elements of the social capital are needed to support character education and to rebuild the country's power to face global challenges. Social capital as a collective force should be reconsidered as a socio-cultural force that strengthens the nation character. The elements of social capital play an important role in the process of character education in the family, school, and community. This can build the character of 'bridging social capital in a synergistic way, the goals and functions of character education can be obtained optimally.

Keywords: social capital, character of nations, teachers and principals

1. Introduction

Globalization causes changes in social culture. Every human society would inevitable undergo changes. Communities often tend to change in terms of social values, social norms, behavior patterns, organization, authority, social interaction, and so forth (Soekanto, 2010).William F. Ogburn suggested that the scope of social change include cultural elements of material or immaterial, with particular emphasis on the great influence of the elements of the material culture on immaterial elements. Kingsley Davis defines social change as changes in geographical conditions, cultural material, composition of the population, both because of diffusion ideology or new findings in the community. Samuel Koening briefly states that social changes point in the changes that occurred in the patterns of human life. While Selo Soemardjan defines that social change is the change in the institutions of society in a society, which affect social systems, including in it the values, attitudes, and behavior patterns of peri groups in society (as cited by Soekanto, 2010).

Social change in culture if not responded and adapted can cause a crisis in character. Currently, there is a very strong tendency in the face of global challenges that people tend to experience a crisis that leads to destruction. As explained by Thomas Lickona that leads to the destruction of life marked by (1) increasing violence among adolescents, (2) using abusive language and words, (3) increasing influence of a strong peer-group strong in acts of violence, (4) increasing self destructive behavior (consumption, alcohol, and sex-free), (5) worsening of guidance and moral, (6) declining work ethic, (7) lowering of respect for parents and teachers, (8) lowering a sense of individual responsibility and community citizens. (9) prevailing dishonesty, and (10) appearance of mutual hatred and suspicious of one another (cited by Masnur Muslich, 2011:35). …

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