Academic journal article Journal of Economic and Social Studies

Evaluating the Employment Probability: Men and Women in Comparative Perspective in Attica and Central Macedonia

Academic journal article Journal of Economic and Social Studies

Evaluating the Employment Probability: Men and Women in Comparative Perspective in Attica and Central Macedonia

Article excerpt

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The programmes implemented in Greece and other EU member states under the Community Support Frameworks (CSFs) - which were infrastructure-related devel- opment projects and investments in physical and human capital - aimed to gear the economy onto a sustainable path of economic growth and development. The CSF goal of promoting growth through investments in infrastructure and human capital was the prerequisite for the cohesion of EU and the sustainability of the nominal con- vergence objective of the Maastricht Treaty in the way to the European Economic and Monetary Union. In this context, it is interesting to see if investment in human capital (education and training) in Greece had a real impact on the labour market.

The aim of the paper is to study the impact that social and demographic characteristics had on the labour market in the Greek Nomenclature ofTerritorial Units for Statistics (NUTS)-2 regions of Central Macedonia and Attica, during the implementation of the CSF-1 (1989-93). Greece consists of thirteen NUTS-2 regions. During the exam- ined time period both regions belonged to the Objective 1 (European regions with a GDP per head less than 75% of the EU mean) of the EU Structural Funds. We choose Central Macedonia and Attica because the above regions are the largest in Greece in terms of population, and the two biggest urban agglomerations in the country (Athens and Thessaloniki) are situated in the regions under study; so, we research half of the Greek population. The reason we choose these years is because 1988 is the last year before the start of the implementation of the Structural Funds, whereas 1992 is the year of the Maastricht Treaty and also the first year of getting information on training programmes in the Greek Labour Force Survey (LFS). So, other studies can compare that period with more recent years. The main questions to be answered, analysing the data separately for males and females, are:

(i) What are the social and demographic characteristics that increase the chances of someone in the examined population finding a job?

(ii) Whether University graduates face greater difficulties in finding a job than the non-University graduates, as a series of studies (see Meghir et al, 1989; OECD, 1990; Iliades, 1995; IN.E./GSEE-ADEDY, 1999; Katsikas, 2005) or aggregate statistics (LFS; Eurostat: Education and Employment Prospects, 1995) for Greece conclude.

(iii) Flow does the participation in training courses affect the chances of getting an employment?

We test male vs. female unemployment, and the human capital theory which pro- vides one of the main explanations for the uneven incidence of unemployment by skill (education and training); we try to research whether the more educated and the more trained a person is, the higher the probability of him finding a job.

Previous labour market studies for Greece were based on qualitative research and LFS aggregated data. Our analysis of investigating the unemployment risk in the Greek labour market - at Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) 2 level - is based on the micro-data of the Greek LFS. The access to the individual anonymised records of the Greek LFS was not allowed to researchers until the sum- mer of 2005, due to the Data Protection Act.

The article starts discussing the gender unemployment issue. Then, we examine the relation between education and unemployment in the EU, and the impact of train- ing programmes on the employment prospects of individuals in the EU and the rest of the OECD according to a series of studies; the results are based on both cross- sectional and longitudinal data. We also discuss the vocational training policies for the unemployed in Greece. Then, we refer to the macroeconomic indicators of the examined regions and follow a logit model for the years 1988 and 1992 - based on micro-data of the Greek LFS - for the two regions under study working separately for men and women. …

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