Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Economic and Social Life in Egypt during the Reign of Ayyubid Sultan Saladin (567 AH -1171 AD) -589 AH/1193AD) a Vision through the Journey (Rihlat) of Ibn Jubayr

Academic journal article Asian Culture and History

The Economic and Social Life in Egypt during the Reign of Ayyubid Sultan Saladin (567 AH -1171 AD) -589 AH/1193AD) a Vision through the Journey (Rihlat) of Ibn Jubayr

Article excerpt


This research aims to study the description, life and biography of the Ayyubid sultan Saladin by Ibn Jubayr, and the economic and social conditions of Egypt as witnessed and described by the traveler Ibn Jubayr and the following results are concluded:

Fust: Ibn Jubayr praised the Ayyubid sultan Saladin and his good conduct and behavior with the subjects, his fairness, his patience and forbearance, modesty and his keen in interest in Jihad for the Sake of Allah. He called him the (Just Sultan).

Second: Ibn Jubayr talked about the keen interest of the sultan in the economic matters of the subjects and especially in regard to tax reform in the state where he dropped them completely, and worked to promote security and order, and securing the trade routes, and also gave an accurate description of the international trade stations in Egypt between the east and the west and the markets in some of the cities.

Third: Ibn Jubayr described the keen interest of the Sultan in regard to the religious and scientific institutions in the society like schools, mosques, religious landmarks and hospitals through the establishment of some of those institutions, and creating the endowments connected to each one of them, in addition to securing steady salaries for those working and serving in those institutions, and spending on the scholars, students and the poor who came to those institutions.

Keywords: Ayyubid, Sultan, Saladin, Ibn Jubayr, social, economic, Egypt, trade

1. Introduction

Ibn Jubayr is the traveler Mohammad Bin Ahmad Al-Kanasi Al-Andalusi, bom in Andalucía in the year 539 AH /1144 AD, and studied the and acquired the knowledge related to the holy Koran, the Sunnah" Sayings and teachings of prophet Muhammad" and Is lamic jurisprudence, and his fame in Islamic history came through his book "Tathkira Bil Al-Akhbar An Itifaqat Al-Asfar" known as the ( journey of Ibn Jubayr which came as the fruit of his journey that lasted for three years, which commenced in the month of Shawwal in the year 578 Ah / 1182 AD, and concluded in the month ofMuharramintheyear 581 AH/ 1185 AD, and he died in the year 614 AH /1217 AD. The m ain purpose of the journey was the Hajj pilgrimage to the holy places, and the pursuit of knowledge (I bn Jub ayr, 1981; Al-Dhahabi, 1985). and his journey inclu ded Eg ypt, Hej az, Bilad A 1-Sham "Modem day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine" and some the Mediterranean islands, and he described with accurate details the conditions of those countries which he visited from all aspects, the buildings and stmctures the economic, the political, the military, the social, the scientific and the religious.

And he gave an accu rate description of t he Ayyubid st ate d uring th e r eign of th e Ayyubid su ltan Salad in especially the social and economic conditions, and he praised the justice of the Sultan and his good governance, and his interest in Jihad for the sake of Allah and called him the just sultan, and talked about the keen interest of the sultan in regard to the matters and lives of the subjects especially in re gard to se curity and order, and his interest in the societal institutions the scientific, the religious, the social and the economic like schools, mosques, religious landmarks and hospitals, also in addition to the interest in trade and economic conditions .

This study focu ses on th e in terest of th e sultan in the m atters of t he sub jects as d escribed b y the contemporaneous traveler Ibn Jubayr, and his book of Rihla (journey) will be the main source of this research, with abun dant chatio ns from th e b ook, an d also so me contemporaneous sou rces will b e u sed to clarify, and complete some of the aspects of this study.

2. Study Problem

Despite the numerous studies about t he Ayyubid state, an d the just Sultan Saladin, there is no co mprehensive study about the policy of the Sultan regarding the Egyptian society, so this study aims to address this issue. …

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