In this article we describe some stages of social work, and we specify them in regard to children experiencing domestic violence. Consequently we present research results, which was concentrated to determine specific operating processes and methods of social work with children experiencing domestic violence.
Keywords: social work, domestic violence, methods of social work, detection, diagnostics, social intervention, therapy
The origin of violence can be dated back to the beginning of human society. We constantly meet with different forms of violence; mostly as uninvolved, sometimes as potential victims, perpetrators or witnesses of violence. We should denounce any violence with which we meet from different perspectives.
Violence and wickedness were tolerated in the past as a natural part of life. Violence on children was deliberately suppressed in our country in order to create an illusion that this problem does not exist. Nowadays the fact of existence of violence on children is tangible. However, what we have changed is a sensibility with which this kind of violence is differentiated. Perspectives and focus on an issue of violence on children have changed in recent years; they have become a part of a fight for humanity, tolerance and non-violence. In recent years, corporal punishments, even punishments as such, have started to be refused. In general it can be stated that the violence is one of expression of wickedness. Violence is the most often used designation of unrepeated physical act or a practice when one man inflicts injury of the other person (Ondrejkovic, 2000, p. 27).
In a wider sense, the domestic violence also presents psychological or other (social, economic, ...) violence, such as repeated verbal attacks, swearing, harassment, and humiliation. In simply words, domestic violence can be understood as violence at home or within a family which assumes close relationships between a victim and an abuser, while it may include signs of sexual or physical violence, as well as psychological or social torture and neglect.
Repeated violence that is characterized by a cruelty, degrading approach causing serious physical and mental endangering can be denominated as an abuse. A term CAN (Child Abuse and Neglect) syndrome is used for an entire complex of abuse, its expressions and consequences. Since 1992 this term has included: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and system abuse-secondary humiliation.
Violence on women and within the family presents violation of human rights. The Slovak Republic accepts all important international documents dealing with human rights. The Slovak Republic ratified many of them during the existence of the Czechoslovakia. After separation in 1993, the Slovak Republic became a contractual party by the succession. They were particularly the following documents: International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (No. 95/1974 Coll.), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (No. 120/1976 Coll.), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (No. 120/1976 Coll.), Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment and Punishment (No. 143/1988 Coll.), Convention on Rights of the Child (No. 104/1991 Coll.), Convention on Political Rights of Women (No. 46/1955), Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (No. 62/1987 Coll.), Option Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (No. 169/1991 Coll.), Option Protocol to UN Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (No. 343/2001 Coll.).
The government delegations of the Slovak Republic have attended international conferences on human rights organized by the United Nations and Council of Europe since 1993, where several action platforms and declarations were adopted. The Slovak Republic has assumed a political obligation to enforce recommendations of these conferences within its internal policy, including measures focused on elimination of all forms of violence and combating of human rights. …