Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Model for Assessing the Physical Status, as Well as Prediction and Programming of Training and Sports Performance of a Soccer Player

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Model for Assessing the Physical Status, as Well as Prediction and Programming of Training and Sports Performance of a Soccer Player

Article excerpt

Introduction

In soccer, performance depends, among other tilings, on the application of complex models for the evaluation of soccer players' physical status. Nevertheless, it also depends on the application of hardware- software systems used for the analysis of sports performance, diagnostics, quantification of training goals, programming and control of trainings, training effects, changes and performance during games (Bangsbo et al., 2006; Milosevic, 2004, 2010b, 2012, 2013; Reilly, 2007). There are two models for evaluating the physical status of a soccer player: western and eastern. According to Clarce(Clarce, 1945), the first modelwas developed by Sargent in 1902. This model aimed at evaluating the strength, speed and endurance of the human body. After Sargent, western scientists continued to develop and upgrade the model by using hypertrophied statistical apparatus. They tried to create instruments that would authentically reconstruct and imitate movements from sports practice (motor tasks) in order to establish control and explain the influence of physical status on sports movements and sports performance. This approach produced models with a huge number of physical skills defined through content and measurements of numerous motor tasks (different types of strength, balance, agility, coordination, flexibility, endurance, educability... ).

In 1975, Yugoslavian researchers (Kurelic et al., 1975), using different motor tasks, the same as western scientists and with the same goalbuilt a hierarchical model for the evaluation of physical abilities from the standpoint of functional mechanisms, and without regard to test contents and measurements. The primary elements of their model are: the mechanisms regulating theintensity of motor neurons' excitation, a process responsible for the quantity of muscle force generated in a unit of time; the mechanisms regulating the duration of motor neurons' excitation, responsible for the quantity of work performed by certain muscle groups, i.e. for different types of static and repetitive strength; the mechanism regulating movement structure, responsible for movement coordination or the efficiency of solving complex motor tasks, as well as for the creation and reproduction of motor rhythm; and the mechanism for functional synergy and effector muscle tone regulation, responsible for the speed of movement, establishment and/or maintenance of balance, flexibility or amplitude of movement in certain joint systems, as well as the precision of certain movements. Secondary elements are: movement regulation mechanism and energy regulation mechanism. This model's tertiary element is the general mechanism for motor regulation.

In 1971, in Russia, independently of western researchers, Zatsiorsky (Zatsiorsky, 1971) develops a model for evaluating physical abilities of athletes based on physiology. The model was used to evaluate 5 basic skills that determine sports performance: strength, speed, endurance, agility, flexibility, and several variants of these skills, such asmyometric. plyometric, isometric, and repetitive strength, different types of speed and endurance, etc. In 2001,Bompa (Bompa, 2001) used different approach and somewhat changes Zaciorsky'smodel. Bompa's model is used for evaluating essential physical abilities of athletes, their strength, speed, endurance, coordination and flexibility. He creates and evaluates the extracted abilities, such as explosive strength, speed endurance, agility, etc.using the interrelations of the essential skills for each motor activity (motor task). According to him, every sport is characterized by a specific interrelation between essential abilities that dictate the performance in a sports discipline. Other models mainly represent the variants of the three abovementioned models. Recently, western scientists upgrade models with new physical abilities such as force, long-term and short-term muscle endurance, cardiovascular endurance, aerobic and anaerobic status, plyometry. …

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