Academic journal article International Education Studies

Using Concept Mapping to Improve Parent Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Challenging Behaviors

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Using Concept Mapping to Improve Parent Implementation of Positive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Challenging Behaviors

Article excerpt

Abstract

Children's challenging behaviors can be addressed with effective interventions that can meet children's emotional needs and support their families. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) value the family involvement in the process of their child treatment. The intention of this study was to use concept mapping as an adjunct to PBIS in an ecological setting. Participants were a four years old boy diagnosed with ADHD and his mother. A multiple-probe baseline across family routines design was used to evaluate the usefulness of concept mapping as an adjunct to the PBIS process (independent variable) on the level of task-engagement behaviors, challenging behaviors, and parent fidelity of implementation (dependent variables) across three routines. Results recognized concept mapping as a promising practice in parent education.

Keywords: Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), concept mapping, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), parent education, mother training, early childhood

1. Introduction

Dismptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are relatively common in childhood. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (APA, 2006), there are 2-16% of school children meeting diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), or Conduct Disorder (CD). Young children with challenging behaviors are at risk for the diagnosis of DBDs. Research has demonstrated that behavior problems that begin in the early years of development is a distinct predictor of later serious behavior disorders as development persists into adolescence and adulthood (Broidy et al., 2003; Campbell, 1995; Kazdin, 1987; Moffitt, 1993; Velderman et al., 2010). Empirical evidence suggests that early intervention is an important component in preventing later negative developmental consequences. Therefore, the development of efficacious interventions which involve parents is essential for long-term benefit on the well-being and quality of life of young children with challenging behaviors and their families (Bor et al., 2002; Dupaul et al., 2002; Kazdin, 1997; Sanders et al, 2003).

There are different approaches to provide parent with interventions to better manage their children's challenging behaviors. Two of the most notable approaches are the expert-driven and the family-driven. The expert-driven approach assumes that behavior specialists conduct comprehensive assessments and develop the interventions, provide the family with the interventions, and also maintain the overall goals of the interventions. Then, to this approach, the parents' involvement is limited to implement the interventions with their child in the home and community settings (Dupaul et al., 2002; Dunst, et al.1999; Gauntlett et al., 2001; Guralnick, 2000; Fox et al., 2002 ). The family-driven approach, which has been used more recently, recognize the importance of the family unique concerns, strengths, and values in every aspect of the child's development, treatment, and progress. As this approach is sensitive to the concerns of families, involves parents in all aspects of a child's treatment. Behavior specialists and parents work cooperatively with each other in an atmosphere of mutual support and respect in order to plan and develop the interventions. Therefore, parents are enabled to participate actively in designing and implementing their child treatment (Dunst, et al.1999; Gauntlett et al., 2001; Fox et al., 2002). Several studies attest that achieving positive treatment outcomes for young children is enhanced when interventions implemented by parents as the primary intervention agents. Interventions should also be embed into the natural environment during the daily routines that the family has identified as problematic (Bor et al., 2002; Cripe and Venn, 1997; Hancock et al., 2002; Homer et al., 2000; 2002; Kashinath et al., 2006; Lucyshyn et al. …

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