Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Investigating the Impact of the Political Change regarding the Dominance of the Muslim Brotherhood on Tourists' Intentions to Visit Egypt before the 2013 Regime Alteration

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Investigating the Impact of the Political Change regarding the Dominance of the Muslim Brotherhood on Tourists' Intentions to Visit Egypt before the 2013 Regime Alteration

Article excerpt

Abstract. This paper concentrated on tourism and the political transformation in the Egyptian context. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of the political change regarding the dominance of the Muslim Brotherhood on tourists' intentions to visit Egypt. This paper clarified the effect of the political change on the tourism industry. It explored the link between governance of the Muslim Brotherhood and tourism. It investigated and identified the factors that enhances Egypt's current image to attract tourists, creating contentment among the visitors intents to visit the country again. This study was considered conclusive research, with a cross-sectional design and an exploratory purpose. The variables were identified through the use of semi-structured interviews. Fifteen interviews were conducted until the saturation level. The empirical findings indicate Egypt is filled with various touristic attractions. However, the political stability affects the tourism process of a country. Hence, the new established government of the Muslim Brotherhood will have an impact on these touristic dynamics. Their governing and decisions will reflect and echo an image that would either encourage or discourage the tourists' perceptions. Depending on the foreigners' formed perception , they will develop intentions to either visit or not visit Egypt, an Islamic touristic destination. This study contributes on the theoretical level in the following ways: by adding to the field of tourism and political transition in the Middle East context; identify the motives for visiting a country facing a political transformation; and establishing a proposed conceptual framework concerning the dominance of the Muslim Brotherhood on foreigners perception towards developing intentions to visit a country.

Keywords. Intention Development, Islamic Tourism, Muslim Brotherhood, Perception, Tourism

1 INTRODUCTION

Tourism is considered one of the largest industries worldwide (Kalesar, 2010). According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) in 2012, it has become a popular global leisure activity. In the year 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 4.6% when compared to the number of visitors in the year 2010. Hence, this industry creates direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of a society. Furthermore, it generates large amounts of income to a country. Tourism is a fundamental and dynamic economic sector for many countries and is essential to be studied (Hanie, 2010). According to numerous researchers, traveling is a human activity with definite political magnitudes. The increasingly global nature of tourism patterns and related enterprises are bringing this industry into the realm of global politics. Tourism is increasingly touched by global economic and civil trends and relationships between nations (Butler and Suntikul, 2010). Thus, this paper will concentrate on tourism and the political transformation in the Egyptian context.

Tourism is one of the most important sectors in Egypt's economy. More than 14.7 million tourists visited Egypt in 2010, providing revenues of nearly 12.5 billion dollars (foreign currency made 20 percent of the country's revenue). In addition, tourism created 12 percent of Egypt's workforce employment. These statistics show that Egypt dominated in the tourism industry. The WTO in 2006, labeled Egypt as one of the ten Muslim countries amongst 38 countries as the world's top emerging tourism destination (Farouk, 2007). Consequently, after the 2011 revolution, there was a drastic cut in international visitors. Furthermore, when the country went thorough political transformation and the Muslim brotherhood took control, tourism still did not return as it was (CIA World Fact book, 2012).

Academic researches regarding relationships between tourism and politics does not have a long or extensive history, but it is a subject area, which has grown considerably. …

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