Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Conceptual Study Revolving Leadership - a Management Prospect

Academic journal article American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal

Conceptual Study Revolving Leadership - a Management Prospect

Article excerpt

1.INTRODUCTION

El- Kaffash (1996 a) (1) suggested the concept revolving leadership as a new paradigm with more explanatory power to understand the Islamic state in history. El- Kaffash suggested that the political field was not their main field of leadership and that there were other fields like the social, the communal, the economic, the scientific and the religious are more prominent fields in the society. Each of these fields has its own epistemological sphere (episteme) as well as its own leaders, and according to the time and space of any event, the leadership revolves among these leaders.

El- Kaffash (1996 b) (2) has suggested a new model for understanding and categorizing art according to its effect and influence on the human being. Combining these two models and transplanting them in managerial sciences the author is trying to open a new conceptual framework for understanding and enhancing management. Let us first go through different theories of management.

1.1 DIFFERENT THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:

1.1.1 Definitions of management: "Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business and manages managers and manages workers and work." (3) "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control." (4) "Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups."(5)

1.1.2 Management - Historical background:

1.1.1.1 Henri Fayol (1841 - 1925):

Fayol was the first person to actually give a definition of management which is generally famil iar today namely 'forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control'. Fayol also gave much of the basic terminology and concepts, which would be elaborated upon by future researchers, such as division of labour, scalar chain, unity of command and centralization. Fayol was describing the structure of formal organizations.

1.1.1.2 F W Taylor - (1856 - 1915) - The Scientific Management School:

Taylorism involved breaking down the components of manual tasks in manufacturing environments, timing each movement ('time and motion' studies) so that there could be a proven best way to perform each task. Thus employees could be trained to be 'first class' within their job. This type of management was particularly relevant to performance drives e.g. 'Action On' projects.

1.1.1.3 Max Weber (1864 - 1924):

Bureaucracy in this context is the organizational form of certain dominant characteristics such as a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules.

Bureaucracy in a sense of red tape or officialdom should not be used as these meanings are value-ridden and only emphasize very negative aspects of the original Max Weber model.

Through analyses of organizations Weber identified three basic types of legitimate authority: Traditional, Charismatic, and Rational-Legal.

Authority has to be distinguished from power in this discussion. Power is a unilateral thing - it enables a person to force another to behave in a certain way, whether by means of strength or by rewards. Authority, on the other hand, implies acceptance of the rules by those over whom it is to be exercised within limits agreeable to the subordinates that Weber refers to in discussing legitimate authority.

1.1.3Human Relations Theories

1.1.1.1Elton Mayo (1880 - 1949): Hawthorns studies

Where Classical theorists were concerned with structure and mechanics of organizations, the theorists of human relations were, understandably, concerned with the human factors.

The foci of human relations theory is on motivation, group motivation and leadership.

At the center of these foci are assumptions about relationship between employer and employee.

1.1.1.2 NEO_ RELATIONS THEORY

1.1.1.3 Maslow (1908 - 1970): hierarchy of needs:

Maslow proposed a hierarchy of human needs building from basic needs at the base to higher needs at the top. …

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