Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Measuring Exercise Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women: Psychometric Properties of the Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES)

Academic journal article Journal of Nursing Measurement

Measuring Exercise Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women: Psychometric Properties of the Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES)

Article excerpt

Background and Purpose: This study assessed the psychometric properties of a modified self-efficacy scale-the Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES). Methods: Pregnant women completed the P-ESES and physical activity questionnaires (N 5 88). Results: Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (a 5 0.838) and equal-length Spearman-Brown (a 5 8.22). Squared multiple correlation coefficients were calculated showing 9 of 10 items with values greater than the desired .5. A nonrotated exploratory principal components analysis confirmed the same 9 of 10 items loaded on a single factor, accounting for 46.1% of the variance. Each item had an acceptable load value of .40 or higher. Conclusions: Initial testing of the P-ESES confirmed validity and reliability with the exception of 1 item from the original measure: "Exercising without physician approval."

Keywords: pregnancy; exercise self-efficacy; measurement; physical activity

Physical activity is an important component of health promotion. A sedentary lifestyle is one of the strongest risk factors for comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, some cancers, poor bone and muscle health, and impaired mental health and mood (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010c). To avoid these risks and gain important health benefits, the CDC (2010b) recommend that adults participate for at least 150 min per week in moderate-intensity aerobic activity and participate in muscular strengthening of all major muscle groups two or more days of the week. Despite these well-founded guidelines, most adults do not meet the recommended levels of physical activity needed to produce health benefits. According to the CDC's Early Release Program 2010, only 33.2% of adults currently meet the recommended levels of physical activity (Benjamin, 2010). Consequently, there has been much interest and research regarding factors associated with exercise adoption and maintenance with significant attention to the influence of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) posits that confidence in one's ability is a strong indicator of performance (Marcus, Selby, Niaura, & Rossi, 1992). Individual exercise self-efficacy has been shown to be highly related to the likelihood of a person to exercise.

One population that has been scarcely researched in relation to exercise self-efficacy and adherence is that of pregnant women. Although it is recommended that pregnant women should achieve the same expectations as healthy adults of 150 min of moderate aerobic exercise per week (CDC, 2010a) to achieve health benefits such as prevention of gestational diabetes, increased mood and energy, and easier labor and delivery (American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], 2011; Fell, Joseph, Armson, & Dodds, 2009), many women still do not meet the current recommendations. To remedy this, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Medical Association have launched a national campaign to promote a physical activity prescription in health care settings (ACSM, 2011). Although several scales have been developed to measure self-efficacy (see Gleeson-Kreig, 2006; Kroll, Kehn, Ho, & Groah, 2007; Marcus, Selby, Niaura, & Rossi, 1992; Resnick & Jenkins, 2000; Resnick, Luisi, Vogel, & Junaleepa, 2004), there has not been a specific focus on pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to substantiate psychometric properties of a modified Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES; Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale [P-ESES]) for use among pregnant women.

BACKGROUND AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Self-Efficacy and Exercise

Self-efficacy theory is attributed to the early work of Bandura (1977) as an explanation for behavior change. Self-efficacy is "the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required in managing prospective situations" (Bandura, 1986, p. …

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