Academic journal article Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

Appendix II: First Nations Aggregates in Canada

Academic journal article Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

Appendix II: First Nations Aggregates in Canada

Article excerpt

The Seven Nations of Canada, a post-Contact confederacy of First Nation peoples established along the St. Lawrence valley, enables us to consider how the classic study of within-village diversity conducted by Fredrik Barth (1993) in northern Bali applies to the interactions among the distinct peoples who were resident within the same immediate area, often identified as a single "village."

Villages of the Seven Nations of Canada included three occupied by Iroquois (Kahnawake, Kanesatake, Akwesasne), one occupied by Wendat-Huron (Lorette-Wendake), one by Algonquin (Pointe-du-Lac, Three-Rivers) and two where the residents came from among the Abenaki (Wolinak and Odanak), which is a collective term applied to those several Eastern peoples, such as the Penobscot and Pasamaquoddy, who had moved west. The village of Odanak also included Sokoki from inland New England, a people today commonly identified as Western Abenaki. The mission station at Kanesatake also included separate villages for the Algonquin and Nepissing, who maintained separate residential areas and dispersed into their respective hunting territories for half the year. (cf. Becker 2006).

The classic study of within-village diversity was conducted by Barth (1993) based on his research in northern Bali many years earlier. In that area, Bali-Hindu villages are interspersed with Islamic villages. All those economies are strongly agricultural, yet hierarchical structures are strong in some of these villages while others are egalitarian. The range of variation within the same general ecological situation is impressive and offers multiple models for how members from several cultures in residential proximity may interact.

Barth's observations of an egalitarian agricultural society also apply to the Tuscarora, who joined the confederacy of the Five Nations Iroquois about 1722. Uncertain at this time is whether these people were foragers or a low level horticultural people before this relocation. Becker suspects they were horticulturalists but there's no archaeological evidence to support this commonly accepted belief. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.