Academic journal article Cross - Cultural Communication

Psychological Contract Imbalance and Management of Enterprise Research and Development Personnel

Academic journal article Cross - Cultural Communication

Psychological Contract Imbalance and Management of Enterprise Research and Development Personnel

Article excerpt


This paper begins with the definitions of psychological contract imbalance and EVLN behaviors. Then, a theory is proposed to further study the influencing model of EVLN behaviors of psychological contract imbalance on enterprise Research and Development (R&D) personnel. A demonstrative research has been done through questionnaires with the researchers in one of the aircraft design institutes in China. Based on previous studies, statistics analysis has been accomplished with the analysis methods of factor, correlation, path, and regression. Therefore, on the basis of validated hypothesis, the conception and countermeasure are proposed for the psychological contract imbalance and management of enterprise R&D personnel.

Key words: Research and development (R&D) personnel; Psychological contract imbalance; Management


The phenomena of psychological contract imbalance of would result in different work attitude and behaviour on institution researchers. Thus, the study on influential factors on R&D personnel, as well as the impact of researchers' attitude and behavior on the stability and development of scientific research institutions is a topic which is evitable and of significant practical meaning.


1.1 Psychological Contract Imbalances

The definition of psychological contract imbalance is widely used in existing studies; some scholars name it as psychological contract breach, which means the individual cognitive evaluation when organisation breaks the promise to personnel. Others call it as psychological contract violation; it is defined as the individual emotional experience when organization failed to fulfill the promise. In practice, these two concepts are often mix used, even though many studies are so-called psychological contract violation but the research fall into the category of psychological contract breach, which suggests that the definition is not clear. In addition, this concept has a fatal shortage; the psychological contract imbalance is regarded as a kind of static state, while current researches certify that the psychological contract imbalance is a dynamic status, which contains the changing process of cognition, emotional experience, and attitude and behaviour tendency.

Therefore, psychological contract imbalance is regarded as the changing process of complex emotional experience and behavior when group members perceive the breach of organisation. In the writer's view:

Psychological contract imbalance is the researcher cognition towards organisation breach and the accompanied attitude and behaviour tendency.

1.2 EVLN Behavior

The EVLN psychological and behavior refers to psychology and behavior tendency when R&D personnel sense declining job satisfaction. It was carried out by Hirschman in 1970, after the development of Zembrodt & Gunn (1982), Farrell (1983), Farrell Rogers & Mains et al. (1988) development; it has become a well-developed mature model.

EVLN (Hirschman, 1970; Rusbult, 1970) is the four types of psychological and behavioral variables of the first English letter abbreviation; it contains the following four parts:

E (exit) is the action of exit, meaning the psychology and behavior when researcher seek to leave the organization through resignation, transferring, and find a new job.

V (voice) stands for appealing action, also known as the complaint behavior; it means research personnel discuss difficulties with the organization to solve the problem through constructive communication.

L (loyalty) is loyalty behavior (silence behavior), it refers to researcher support the organisation in a public or private way, optimistic but passively waiting for organization situation change.

N (neglect) is to ignore behavior; it refers to negative behaviour by lessening effort, reducing performance, or other anti-organisation behaviour. …

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