Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

From E-Learning 1.0 to E-Learning 2.0: Threats & Opportunities for Higher Education Institutions in the Developing Countries

Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

From E-Learning 1.0 to E-Learning 2.0: Threats & Opportunities for Higher Education Institutions in the Developing Countries

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are generating a new global economy, which gets its power from technology, fuel from information and knowledge takes the driving seat (Tinio, 2002). These technologies provide the electricity of information-age (Macleod, 2005) to construct an information-society or knowledge- economy (Hameed, 2007). However, technological innovations and applications are founded on the education system of a country. For example, any digital initiative is fueled by a batch of ICT-professionals to develop and users to apply technologies for organizational objectives (Ezziane, 2007). Given that, it is the education system which helps nations in harnessing ICTs for government, business, agriculture, banking and education by generating a skilled workforce. However, this requires the education system itself to be computerized first and then educate the masses in adopting computers into their informal and formal lives (Nawaz & Kundi, 2010a; Nawaz, 2012a).

Within education, ICTs have started emerging, for example, in the western European context, it is now common to integrate ICT into logistical, organizational and educational functions of HEIs (Valcke, 2004; Baumeister, 2006) showing that ICTs are changing the nature of work and the workplace for all the university constituents (Ezziane, 2007). Sife et al., (2007) found that ICTs are changing the organization and delivery of higher education because they are adopting alternatives to the traditional classroom pedagogy and developing a variety of e-Learning courses. Research also suggests that ICTs offer new learning opportunities for students e-Learning, develop teacher's professional capabilities (e-Pedagogy) and strengthen institutional capacity (e-Education) and most universities today offer some form of e-Learning (Nawaz et al., 2011c).

2. From E-Learning 1.0 To E-Learning 2.0: The Evolution

Blended Learning or e-Learning was a buzzword few years ago "teaching and learning with the aid of computers" (Sendall et al., 2008). The expression A3 (anytime, anywhere and anybody) was the synonym at the inception of e-Learning and the first steps of e-Learning (Crane Beverley, 2009), that includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching including education technology or a computer and network enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. Yet, earlier e-Learning was based on conventional methods such as instructional packets delivered to students through assignments evaluated by teachers, on other side, new concept of e-Learning 'e- Learning 2.0' places increased emphasis on the social learning and use of social software (Brown et al., 2008). However, the Web we are using today is dramatically changing. Tim O'Reilly (2004) was the first who coined Web 2.0, and its popularity grew within all its applications i.e. use of Weblogs, Wikis, Podcasts, Web Sharing Applications and Social Bookmarking s i m p l y k n o w n a s Social Network, wherein e-Learning 2.0 is the title of bringing the benefits of Web 2.0 to learning. Stephen Downes, w a s t h e f i r s t w h o used t e r m e-Learning 2.0, in his article "For all this technology, what is important to recognize is that the emergence of the Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution" so eLearning 2.0 assumes that knowledge is socially constructed (Brown et al., 2008).

E-Learning ranges from a supplemental use of computers to entirely depending on ICTs for teaching, learning and education management. However, modern sophisticated uses of e-Learning in some parts of the world has not reached this level instantly rather along the development trajectory of the ICTs themselves. As the computers and communication technologies became more and more advanced and increasingly supportive in the education environment, the e-Learning models grew into more sophisticated tools for real e-Teachers, e-Students and e-Administrators (Nawaz & Kundi, 2010b; Nawaz, 2012b). …

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