Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Teaching Styles and Motivation in Learning Breast Stroke in Swimming

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Teaching Styles and Motivation in Learning Breast Stroke in Swimming

Article excerpt


The aim of this research is to find out the difference between teaching styles and motivation toward breast stroke skill in swimming. The sample of this research consists of 32 students who major in Physical Education Health and Recreation, State University of Padang. An experimental study with 2 X 2 factorial was designed. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA (analysis of variance) and continued with Tukey Test. The results of the research showed that (1) In general, experimental group with inclusion style has higher result than those with training style. (2) There is an interaction in the treatment between teaching style and motivation toward breast stroke skill in swimming. (3) The students who have high motivation and got treatment with inclusion style have higher result than those of high motivation in training style. (4) There is no significance difference of breast stroke skill in swim between training style and inclusion style of students who have low motivation.

Keywords: teaching styles, motivation, swimming

1. Introduction

Swimming course is one of the five major groups of practice subjects that becomes part of the syllabus of Physical Education, Health and Recreation Department. Swimming course contains curriculum materials that outline four swimming styles (breaststroke, crawl style, butterfly and backstroke).

Swimming skills are needed for alumni of PJKR Department, apart from teaching at schools, it can add value as an investment to open a sport industry in the field of aquatic sports. Swimming course includes a discussion of: 1) The introduction of water (breathing), 2) Gliding (front float), 3) Floating, 4) Kicking action, 5 ) Arm action, 6) Movement to take a breath (breathing), 7) Breath, kick and arm coordination, 8) Start, 9) Reversal, 10) Finish, 11) Water trod, 12) Diving, and 13) Game rules, management and organizing tournaments (PRSI 2003).

Swimming course is divided into two, namely: (1) basic swimming that consists of the teaching of breaststroke and crawl style swimming, (2) Advanced swimming that consists of backstroke and butterfly swimming, life-saving stroke and teaching methods. In basic swimming, students are expected to have a change in their behavior; one of them is to have skills of breaststroke and free style swimming, as well as to understand the history of swimming. Swimming skills are expected to lead to changes in motor skills. The change means that the students who cannot swim will be able to swim.

Factors such as students themselves, teachers/lecturers, facilities and infrastructure as well as the environment, including the style of a teacher/lecturer in delivering course materials influence the achievement of teaching and learning objectives. Understanding the variety of teaching styles has become requirements for a lecturer/teacher to (a) face the amount of students/different students, (b) learning objectives that cover all three domains of psychomotor, cognitive and social, and (c) subject matter and the context at the time of giving tasks to a specific approach.

With regard to the characteristics of the students, a lecturer applies or uses more teaching styles on the grounds of safety, uniformity, effectiveness and efficiency of time and the achievement of learning objectives of the swimming courses.

In addition to exercises teaching style, a few other teaching styles are also known. One of the teaching styles is the inclusion teaching style. In the inclusion teaching style, lecturers present the overall level of difficulty of the learning materials in detail because students are given the freedom to pick and choose the difficulty level from where students can begin to learn, and given the freedom to determine how many times to repeat the movements in learning a movement technique in every meeting. So with the inclusion teaching style, students are given the freedom to be creative and determine the difficulty level according to their ability. …

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