Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Resilience and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Well-Being among the Elderly Persons

Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Resilience and Self-Efficacy as Correlates of Well-Being among the Elderly Persons

Article excerpt

Well-being can be defined in terms of an individual's physical, mental, social, and environmental status, with each aspect interacting with the other and each having differing levels of importance and impact according to each individual (Kiefer, 2008). Well-being has been related to numerous potential antecedents, such as personality traits, emotions, physical health, social class, wealth, and social support (Ryan & Deci, 2001).

One of the most widely used models of wellbeing was presented by Ryff (1989) and Ryff and Keyes (1995) in the context of developing a lifespan theory of human flourishing, describing well-being not simply as the attaining of pleasure, but as 'the striving for perfection that represents the realization of one's true potential' (Ryff, 1995). This model is a multidimensional approach to the measurement of psychological well-being that taps six distinct aspects or facets i.e. autonomy, personal growth, self-acceptance, purpose in life, environmental mastery, and positive relations with others. There may be a large number of factors which significantly correlate with the well-being status of the individual. These factors may be grouped into psychological and demographical categories. Resilience and self-efficacy which fall in psychological category have been found to correlate with well-being at significant levels.

Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance, undergo change, and stillretain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedback (The Resilience Alliance, 2011). Resilience is the happy knack of being able to bungy jump through the pitfalls of life (Fuller, 1998). Resilience is a broad concept covering many domains concepts related to positive patterns of adaptation in the context of adversity (Masten & Obradovic, 2006).

Resilient older adults are able to adjust to life adversities with little disruption to their lives. Resilience is considered as a personality characteristic that moderates the negative effects of stress and promotes adaptation (Wagnild & Young, 1993). Resilience may be understood as the ability to avert the impact of chronic strains, like chronic conditions, on the physical functioning, psychological functioning, and wellbeing (Talsma, 1995). It has been observed that resilience and self-efficacy are well connected concepts.

Self-efficacy refers to a person's belief in his/ her ability to organize and execute a required course of action to achieve a desired result (Bandura, 1997). Self-efficacy determines an individual's resiliency to adversity and his/her vulnerability to stress and depression (Bandura, Caprara, Barbaranelli, Gerbino & Pastorelli, 2003). General self-efficacy aims at a broad and stable sense of personal competence to deal effectively with a variety of stressful situations (Adeyemo & Adeleye, 2008; Schwarzer, 1994).

The past few decades have witnessed a progress of research in this field. There are very few studies which indicated the relationship between resilience and self-efficacy. Traits such as self-mastery, self-efficacy, positive outlook, and sense of humor have been isolated as contributing to resilience in the general population (Richardson, 2002). Self-efficacy has been identified as important for a resilient person (Flyn, Ghazal, Legault, Vandermeulen & Petrick, 2004). Speight (2009) observed that resilience was significantly and positively correlated with self-efficacy, whereas A Jalili (2010) reported that self-efficacy was the positive significant predictor of resilience, although, athletes and non-athletes had different patterns to predict psychological resilience.

Some previous studies indicated the relationship between resilience and well-being. Resilience is associated with enhancing wellbeing through having adaptive capacities that permit some level of control over future direction to be exerted rather than being solely left at the mercy of unmanageable external forces (Deveson, 2003). …

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