Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Persuasive Utterances in a Political Discourse (the Case Study of the Regent Election Campaign of Pasuruan, East Java-Indonesia)

Academic journal article International Journal of Linguistics

The Persuasive Utterances in a Political Discourse (the Case Study of the Regent Election Campaign of Pasuruan, East Java-Indonesia)

Article excerpt


This article describes the result of the research study of persuasive utterances used by the campaign speakers of the Regent and vice Regent election at Pasuruan, East Java. The specific aim of the study is to describe the patterns, strategies and culture-social norms of persuasive utterances used in the political campaign based on the pragmatic perspective. Theoretically, persuasive utterances are defined as the ones to influence and convince the hearers to do the acts wanted by the speakers. Therefore, the utterance types can be categorized into 'directive-speech acts'. Having been pragmatically studied, however, the persuasive utterances which have been functioned as 'directive-speech acts', are not merely used in 'directives' but also in other speech-acts such as: assertive/representatives, commissives, expressives, and declaration. That's why, they can be classified into 'directives' in the form of direct utterances and 'directives' in the form of indirect utterances. Then, in this study direct utterances are categorized into 'directives' while indirect utterances are categorized into combination forms such as: assertive-directives, commissive-directives, expressive-directives, and declaration-directives. Besides reflecting the patterns, these speech-acts also reflected the strategies of utterances in which the norms of culture and social life of the local people can be described. These norms can be identified based on the utterance forms and strategies that the speakers used and also the attitudes or social behaviors that they showed, such as: politeness, the harmony of the team work, and their obedience to kiai or ulama (Moslem scholars) in determining their political wisdom. Thus, the persuasive utterances and persuasive acts produced by the speakers can be said to have an impact to the norms of positive and negative politeness of speakers and hearers.

Keywords: Pragmatic study, Persuasive utterances, Directive speech-acts, Strategies of utterances, Political campaign, Norms of social life

1. Introduction

The back ground of the study is based on the impoliteness of political campaign events held by the political parties by the time of the General Election of the House of Representatives and the Head of Government (President, Governor, Regent and Mayor). The problems above were mostly seen from the deviation of campaign regulations or campaign ethics, such as distributing the media of campaign (the pictures of candidates) broadly before the time of campaign came.

Referring to the background of the study, this research is categorized as "qualitative' in the form of "ethnography'. Related to the research design mentioned above, then the aims of the study are focused on the descriptions of the utterance patterns, strategies, and norms of culture and social life which were produced by each utterance such as: the politeness of utterances, the politeness of persuasive acts, and political culture behaved by the persuaders.

To achieve the goal of the study, then the researcher analyzed 151 utterances of the total number of 460 utterances which were available in a data corpus. Those utterances were analyzed using techniques and approaches of the following dimensions: (1) dimension of pragmatic theories, (2) dimension of persuasion theories, and (3) dimension of social and culture theories.

1.1 Dimension of Pragmatic Theories.

Theoretically, this study cannot be separated from pragmatic theories argued by the linguists, such as Austin, the Britain linguist (1962) who argued the earliest speech-act theory. This theory was adopted from Malinowski's views (1923) which show that each utterance made by a speaker is an act. In this case, Malinowski argued that language was not only used as a means of saying the words but also doing the acts. Even, in a phatic communication, what a speaker says also produces an act. The other linguists who developed Malinowski's theory are Jacobson (1960), Searle (1969), and Kreidler (1998). …

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