Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Body Fat Percent, Anthropometric Indices in 10 to 18 Year Old Adolescents

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Body Fat Percent, Anthropometric Indices in 10 to 18 Year Old Adolescents

Article excerpt

Itroduction

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as clustering of metabolic risk factors including central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hyper- tension (1). In recent decades, increasing obesity and MetS among children and adolescents is asso- ciated with a number of adverse consequences in adulthood including type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (2-4). The process of ath- erosclerosis starts at an early age and is already linked to obesity and other components of MetS in childhood (5). While current estimates indicate prevalence of 2-9% for MetS in US adolescents (6), a high prevalence of MetS up to 30% has been reported by Esmaillzadeh in Iranian adolescents (7). There is substantial evidence evaluating the association between childhood obesity and cardio- metabolic risk factors, i.e. abdominal obesity, dis- orders in glucose regulation, dyslipidaemia and hypertension in pediatrics (8, 9). Considering obese European adolescents, 20.3-35.7% had clustering of ≥3 risk factors, while only 6.3-8.8% was free from any risk factors (4). Additionally, elevated body mass index (BMI) in adolescents has a distinct relationship with type 2diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incide- nce in adulthood(2, 10-12). However, documented studies on the association of body fat percent as an indicator of obesity with cardiovascular risk factors are limited (13, 14).

The current study investigated the association of body fat percentage (BFP), BMI, waist circumfer- ence (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) with MetS and its components in10 to 18year old ado- lescents.

Materials and Methods

Study population

In this cross-sectional study (conducted in 2007), a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used to select 134 adolescents (66 boys and 68 girls), aged 10-18 years from among Tehran's urban population of District No. 13. Participants underwent a physical examination by trained physicians to reasonably exclude any health problems. Subjects were excluded if they had a medical history of chronic disorders includ- ing cardiovascular, renal, rheumatologic and con- genital diseases. This study was approved by the institutional Ethics Committee of the Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, affiliated to Sha- hid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, and informed written consent was obtained from par- ticipants' parents.

Measurements

Weight was measured using digital scale (Seca 707) to the nearest 0.1 kg, while the subjects were mini- mally clothed. Height was measured using a tape meter stadiometer in a standing position, without shoes, with the shoulders in a normal position to the nearest 0.1 cm, and WC was measured with an unstretched tapemeasure, at the narrowest level over light clothing, without any pressure to body surface and was recorded to the nearest 1 cm. BMI was calculated as weight/height2 (kg/m2), and WHtR was calculated by dividing WC (cm) by height (cm). Body fat percent was determined us- ing the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Whole body impedance at 50 kHz was measured using a Quadscan 4000 analyzer from Bodystat 1500 in UK. Measurements were taken after at least 5h (overnight) fasting and with an empty bladder. Any jewelry and metal accessories were removed and children were asked to lie su- pine for 5min before starting the measurements. One electrode was attached at the level of the ul- nar head at the wrist and the other just behind the knuckles. On the foot, the two electrodes were attached at the level of the medial and lateral mal- leoli and just behind the toes, respectively. Imped- ance (?) at 50 kHz and BF% measurements was recorded.

To measure blood pressure, subjects were first asked to rest for 15min. Then, a qualified physi- cian measured blood pressure twice using a stand- ard mercury sphygmomanometer with the subject in a seated position, during physical examinations after one initial measurement for determining peak inflation level. …

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