Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

An Investigation of the Relationship between the Fear of Receiving Negative Criticism and of Taking Academic Risk through Canonical Correlation Analysis

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

An Investigation of the Relationship between the Fear of Receiving Negative Criticism and of Taking Academic Risk through Canonical Correlation Analysis

Article excerpt

Students' academic success is influenced both by their cognitive entry behaviors and by their affective characteristics (Senemo?lu, 2005). Cognitive entry behaviors comprise things previously learned which are considered to be prerequisites for learning a specific unit (Bloom, 1979). Affective characteristics, on the other hand, are the source from which students draw their desire and motivation to participate in the learning process (Erden & Akman, 2011; Özkan, 2005; Tok, 2008). With this in mind, it is clearly understood that affective factors play a leading role in the realization of effective and permanent learning (Ayd?n, 2007; Demirba? & Ya?basan, 2006; K?l?ç, 2002; Tekin, 2009). Yet, there are certainly factors which may impede affective characteristics from becoming fully manifest; including, (1) a disorganized inclusion of affective domain related behaviors into the curricula after introducing behaviors related to the cognitive domain (Turgut, 1997) and (2) the difficulty of identifying and evaluating affective factors (Bacanl?, 2006; Senemo?lu, 2005; Tekin, 2009) on account of their complicated nature (Lebens, Graff, & Mayer, 2011). An investigation of affective factors' influence on academic reveals that the following variables are at the forefront: (1) anxiety (Akba? & Kan, 2007; Gömleksiz & Yüksel, 2003; Hembree, 1990; Hortwitz, 2001; Richardson & Suinn, 1972), (2) attitude (Hemmings, Grootenboer, & Kay, 2011; Lucas, 1998; White, Way, Perry, & Southwell, 2006), (3) interest (Heinze, Reiss, & Rudolph, 2005; Jones, 1964; Koller, Baumert, & Schnabel, 2001; Kuzgun, 2006; Renninger, Hidi, & Krapp, 1992; Sing, Granwiller, & Dika, 2002), and (4) motivation (Akbaba, 2006; Middleton & Spanias, 1999; Wigfield & Wentzel, 2007). However, the strong influence of affective characteristics on fulfilling learning-teaching objectives (Chastain, 1975; Gömleksiz, 2003; Ellez, Gümü?, & Seferov, 2009; Oral, 2010; Tobias, 1991) necessitates one to consider different affective characteristics; particularly, (1) perfectionism degree (Altun & Yaz?c?, 2010; ?lhan & Öner Sünkür, 2012; Parker, 2000; Ram, 2005; Soleymani & Rekabdar, 2010; Stoober & Rambow, 2007; Tsui & Mazzocco, 2006) and (2) the level of hopelessness one feels toward a specific course (Yenilmez, 2010). In this vein, one of the affective characteristics necessitating consideration in student behaviors in the teaching-learning process is the fear of receiving negative criticism and evaluation (Dinnel et al., 2002; Kocovski & Endler, 2000).

The fear of receiving negative criticism is defined as feeling excessive and constant anxiety (Ayd?n, 2008; Leary, 1983; Weeks, Heimberg, & Rodebaugh, 2008) that one will be criticized in a negative and hostile way by others (Leary, 1983). This leads the individual to believe that (1) s/he will be evaluated in undesirable manners while preparing for or participating in a social event (Weeks et al., 2005), (2) the belief that others expect highly of him/her in situations requiring social performance, (3) doubting one's own talent and ability to perform (Rapee & Heimberg, 1997), and (4) the formation of conditional beliefs that s/he will be isolated if s/he makes a mistake (Clark & Wells, 1995). As a result of such beliefs, an individual who has such fears of being negatively evaluated will avoid social contexts and situations requiring social performance in order not to experience rejection, seeking instead behaviors that do not take him/her out of his safety zone (Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). The fear of being negatively evaluated also has influence over an individual's behaviors during the learning and teaching process. The fear of receiving negative criticism leads to the several subsequent problems; such as, (1) fear of failure which further decreases the student's tendency to learn (McKinney, 2003; VandeWalle, 1997), (2) a decrease in his/her level of academic self-esteem (Dinnel et al. …

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