Academic journal article The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

Flood (2010) Effects on Agriculture, Livestock, Infrastructure and Human Health: A Case Study of Charsadda District

Academic journal article The Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

Flood (2010) Effects on Agriculture, Livestock, Infrastructure and Human Health: A Case Study of Charsadda District

Article excerpt


This study was conducted to evaluate the main causes and damages of flood (2010) in district Charsadda. Most of the villages in Charsadda District are prone to floods during summer mainly because of torrential rainfall, melting of snow and ice, deforestation and over grazing in the catchment areas of rivers flowing across Charsadda. Overflowing the natural levees, the 2010 flood caused tremendous damages to houses, agriculture, standing crops and other infrastructures. The houses were damaged and resulted the displacement of 5500 families. All governmental and private health facilities and water supply schemes were damaged completely. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that flood relief channels and embankments should be improved along with the active flood areas to minimize the flood hazards.

Keywords: Rood hazards, agriculture, livestock, houses, infrastructure


Roods are natural and recurrent events and become a big problem mainly because of human interference with a river for the use of flood plain or encroachment (White, 1974). Flood risk is defined by the probability of flooding and the damage caused by the flood event. There is a general belief that extreme flood events will occur more frequently due to changes in climate and land use (Reynard et al., 2001; Brown and Damery, 2002). Flood has many types including river flood, coastal flood and flash flood. However, flash flood is the cause of damages in the study area. A flash flood is a disaster that gives no warning. One place may be affected by a cloud burst, while another a few kilometers away may be untouched. This makes it impossible to predict when a river will burst its banks (Lockyer, 1996). Hash floods are a common disaster in Pakistan and often hit Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). Hash floods are a direct result of tampering with nature in a cruel way. There are evidences of flash flood and its hazards in the past, such as on 1st July, 1977, about 229 mm of rain fall occurred in a single day in Karachi. This heavy rainfall caused flash flooding in Malir and Layari river courses, killing 280 people, rendering 18,000 homeless and destroying 5,000 dwellings, many of them washed away in the bed of Malir. Low lying areas of Karachi City were flooded to a depth of 1.5 m, railway tracks near Mauripur were washed out, telephone, power supplies and drinking water supplies were cut and the whole city was separated for several days from its sources of supply of food. The 1992 floods wreaked havoc in Abbottabad and Mansehra. Village Batangi and Keri Raih in district Abbottabad, saw massive landslides which buried many people alive in their homes. Like other regions of Pakistan, Charsadda District is also prone to flood hazard. Along with flash floods, it receives a number of rivers and seasonal torrents flowing through it.

Catastrophic floods through the entire decade of 90s caused heavy losses to life and property in Charsadda District. In 1991, flood affected 6111 acres of cropland and the cost of damages was7 million Pakistani rupees.

Similarly, the flood in 1992 has affected 16 villages and 3645 acres of crop-land and the estimated loss was of 13 million rupees. Charsadda is a densely populated district and has a fertile agricultural land; therefore, it cannot afford such a calamity PRO, 2000). Charsadda was one of hardest hit districts by the summer 2010 flash floods (Figl). The flood disaster hit Charsadda on 28th July, 2010 early in the morning and about one million people were stranded in their houses. The heavy showers continued for 3 days, causing floods in all the rivers and streams in this District. This flood was reported to be of much more severe intensity compared to all the past occurred in the area (DCO, 2010).

The present study was conducted in district Charsadda to assess the damages caused by flash and river flood, its effects on human settlement, agriculture, livestock and commercial areas. …

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