Academic journal article IUP Journal of International Relations

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Academic journal article IUP Journal of International Relations

Focus

Article excerpt

Africa entered the 21st century as the poorest, the most technologically backward, and the most marginalized region of the world. Many African countries, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, are lagging behind in economic development and continue to stagger under extreme poverty. The lack of basic amenities like nutritious food, clothing and housing, poor health services, widespread prevalence of diseases like HIV/AIDS, persistent drought, endemic corruption, bad governance, weak institutions and so on are some of the foremost development challenges of Africa.

Most of the African economies are import-dependent and debt distressed, and still rely a lot on foreign aid. The international financial institutions like the World Bank and IMF, and western countries like the US, Japan and European Union have provided billions of dollars in aid to the poorest countries in Africa. Several initiatives have also been taken to eradicate poverty. In spite of these measures, there is still a long way to go and much remains to be done. The first two papers of this issue examine some of the development challenges of Africa.

Joshua Olusegun Bolarinwa, in the paper, "Reforms and Development Initiatives in Africa", opines that many African countries, despite huge deposits of mineral wealth and significant agricultural resources, are still in their early stages of economic development and face a unique developmental challenge. African countries are bedeviled by a host of severe problems like crushing debt, mass unemployment, weak institutions, poor leadership, decline in human welfare, corruption, etc. The author assesses the level of reforms in relation to development initiatives in Africa and considers that reforms need high-level leadership, commitment and political will and are likely to succeed if undertaken through consultations with the stakeholders, i. …

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