Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Challenges and Opportunities for Pak-China Security Environment in the Perspective of United States India Strategic Partnership

Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Challenges and Opportunities for Pak-China Security Environment in the Perspective of United States India Strategic Partnership

Article excerpt

US India: Non-aligned to Convergence

The Relations of United States and India incorporates wide-ranging issues like security, political, trade and technological. Before 1947, United States power politics in world affairs had not focused South Asia (Limaye, 1993, p.292). United States made its National Security Policy in the 1940s that was the vital dominating factor for the containment policy of communism (Kux, 1991, p. 19). Right from the independence, India had a different perspective that is totally contradictory with America. India did not join the block although United States had acknowledged itself as the solitary liberator of the World. India declared itself as nonaligned whereas United States efforts were in full swing to counter Communism. John Foster Dulles labeled India as "incompatible with friendship with the United States" (Mansingh, 2006, p. 1). In 1949, India recognized China and considered that Taiwan is the integral territory of China. In 1951, the United States labeled China as a hegemonic and hostile state towards other neighboring countries and backed a resolution in the United Nations against China but India was the only single noncommunist state, who voted against it in the United Nations General Assembly. During the 1950s, India was totally against to form any coalition to block China (Chary, 1995, pp. 74-84).

United States and India connotation observed diminutive manifestations in the Korean crises. In 1956, this relation disappeared due to the Indian dual policy on the tragedies of Suez and Hungary. India did not condemn the brutal actions of the Soviet Union in Hungary but had entirely opposite stance on Suez assault (Gupta, 2005, p. 2). Although, India declared itself a champion of non-aligned movement but during the sixties, it enjoyed military and defense relations with Soviet Union (Kux, 2002, p.19). From the 1960s, India started taking economic, political and defense assistance from a communist USSR which was not acceptable for United States. Furthermore, United States played its role to solve the issue of Kashmir with India and Pakistan which further distanced the two nations (Kux, 2002, pp. 19-20). In 1979 China, Pakistan and United states condemned the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. But India had a view that United States should find some political solution of the crises of Afghanistan and did not condemn the Soviet invasion which was against the policy of United States.

In 1962, during the India and China border conflict, there was a short-lived period of Indo-US collaboration. United States supported and assisted India against China by using all means and gave even huge military support to counter China (Tellis, 2005, pp. 1-2). India got all benefits in terms of military and economic empowerment during the USSR-China conflict. The pentagon opposed military assistance and cooperation with India. India remained "strategically irrelevant"due to the division of US administration regarding the relationship with the ally of USSR. (Mansingh, 2006, p.1) Since the independence, as the India and former Soviet Union relations got momentum, the US-India could not advance to a strategic level and these relations more worsened during the India Pakistan war in 1971 when India blamed that US administration sent 7th fleet in Bay of Bengal to pressurize India and in order to support Pakistan (Kux,1991???).The United States and Indian relations could not develop further up to 1970s due to the implications of National Defense policy of United States and got worse due to the spontaneous initiation of non-proliferation sanctions in the context of India's 1974 first nuclear device test (Gupta, 2005, p.2). India responded that she had pushed into redundant arms race because of US-Pakistan defense relations that were not actually for the containment of communism but US aid to Pakistan is meant to be source of spur to encounter India (Cohen, 2000, pp.4-5).

In1985 and 1991, two little spans of collaboration beheld between Indo-US cooperation simultaneously, 1st is MOU on transfer of Technology and 2nd is "a common strategic vision". …

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